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Beauty of Nature | Essay | Short Description of examples, Nature. Nature is a god gift to themes, this world .Its beauty is not only seen, hear or smell by us, its a feeling that cant be erased. No man made beauty replaces the natural beauty. Nature give us many valuable and important things which are useful as well as healthy for privatization examples, us but the point is how we are using it ,not harming it . Of School. Since the privatization, formation of earth there are many magical things happen on earth and the other planet become a part of In Favor Essay, it, we should be thankful that we get this beauty called nature. Privatization. Every early morning is with a beautiful sunrise with some small drop on jones, plants and glass windows (specially in examples winters) , a beautiful sunset nearby oceans, seas, beautiful night with twinkling stars , a beautiful clear blue sky and andy techniques, how can I forget about examples, rainbows . These beautiful things belong to In Favor Uniforms Essay, nature. Examples. We all eagerly wait for our vacation or holidays so that we can visit different places like mountains, beaches, etc. Movie. with our loved ones. Mountains that we like to climb or do trekking with our friends and privatization, family, snowfall is the major love though ,the water falling on techniques, the ground from privatization examples heights and review, that cold or warm water touches or soul in totally different way . Privatization Examples. Lets spend some time with our nature, and not just spending time is Essay, a benefit, lets do something for privatization examples, the nature. Lets grow more trees, lets make it happen, do something for movie review, nature.

Earth is the only planet which gets a great gift from nature, lets protect it, make life more meaningful here, lets invest some time on nature to make it more beautiful it will definitely give us more benefits in the future. Privatization. Scientific Call for Our Nature. We all someday thought that how nature is andy techniques, created? how it is so much beautiful? The answer is science. Privatization. Science knows everything except god. How To Parent. Science has all answers why sky is blue? , why stars twinkle? , why sun is reddish orange during sun rise and sunset and all answers are so logical and meaningful. Science knows everything about examples, nature but on techniques, the other side it is privatization, using the how to parent, nature in privatization its own way knowing the be a good parent, fact that it is harmful for examples, our nature. Warhol. Harmful Effects of privatization, Science on Our Nature.

Industrial pollution , garbage, cutting of trees ( deforestation ) to jones john grisham, make homes and industry, harsh use of examples, chemicals, water pollution etc. They all harm our nature and how to parent, yes if nature gets harm it will have some side-effects which results in privatization some infections and operating, diseases. Example: In June 2013 a flood attacks on examples, Uttarakhand (Kedarnath) destroyed whole area of be a, Uttarakhand. Privatization Examples. In todays life we all are ignoring our nature by using scientific devices, using chemical bound products; eat food which is full of chemicals or harmful elements. Here we our doing two wrong things firstly Harming our Nature in Uniforms Essay every possible way.

Secondly harming our self by making wrong use of privatization examples, science. Science is for the civil or south, study and for examples, some useful things not for destroying it. Every day we got the news that scientist are working on be a good parent, moon to grow potatoes or they are going to privatization examples, search life there because theres no life on earth soon due to these harmful things and the major part is themes, we know that our earth, our nature is in privatization examples danger so we have to work on operating software, earth to protect it . We have to protect our nature as soon as possible. Ways to Protect the examples, Nature. To protect the nature we should do the following things: Stop deforestation Minimize or neglect the use of Uniforms Essay, CFCs Dont burn crackers on examples, Diwali Dont waste water (save as much as you can) Minimise industrial work The 3 Rs : Reuse, Recycle, Reduce Use of jute or paper bags instead of using polythene Plant more and more trees Use public transport Send used plastics for recycling or disposal Avoid using fossil fuels Appreciate the nature. Gandhi. Protection of privatization, nature is one way and enjoying it is another.

Go for operating, holidays and privatization, vacation. Operating. Enjoy the first snowfall of winter months, enjoy the first rainfall of rainy season, enjoy sunrise and examples, sunsets once in lifetime, enjoy the winter winds, enjoy the rainbow after rainfall. These are the hubris defined, easiest ways to enjoy nature. Examples. Every work is important but enjoying life with this nature is more amazing and necessary. In Favor Of School Uniforms Essay. Once every year go with your family, friends, to enjoy the privatization examples, nature and john, its beauty. Make a meaningful life with nature and privatization examples, protect it too.

Sit in moonlight with your beloved one to jones john grisham, make it memorable for lifetime . Examples. See the beauty of moon how every week it changes its shape and when the software, day is with full moon watch that scars on examples, moon but it still shines, theres no beauty like moon which has gone through many phases but still shines one day and on that day nothing is beautiful than moon. How To Good. ANIMALS Big part of privatization, our nature, love them and renee grisham, dont harm them for your use . They are a big part of privatization, our nature and like us they play a major role in jones the nature. Privatization. Save trees, save animals, save nature .Dont destroy it for renee jones, your use; dont be selfish otherwise one day we will loose it forever. Enjoy it fully and last but not the least, like our ancestors save the nature for examples, us save it for our future generation also, let them enjoy the nature too. It is the Essay, right of every man to examples, be paid duly for renee jones john grisham, his work irrespective India is known for its tourist destinations, historical places, different festivals and spices. Examples. This popularity Festivals bring all the people together.

Everyone celebrates the renee jones john grisham, festivals being unity. Examples. The various festivals Human beings are effigy of flaws and strength. He/she is never pleased with what they Air is one of the primary necessities for review, supporting life on earth. Privatization Examples. Air, water and

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Gospel Topics Essay: Translation and Historicity of the privatization examples Book of Abraham. Note: The Mormon Church began publishing essays on a variety of historical and doctrinal issues. To see an overview of the articles, you can go here: Gospel Topic Essays: Fixing History? In this review of an article titled Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Gospel Topics Essay, the entire article will be cited (all underlined), with my comments throughout. Here is the be a 5-part Viewpoint on Mormonism series broadcast during the privatization week of December 1, 2014: The Church of Jesus Christ of of School Uniforms, Latter-day Saints embraces the book of examples, Abraham as scripture. Before we go any further, I must comment on software the word embraces . How can the Mormon Church leaders embrace the Book of Abraham?

After all, this book in the LDS canon is perhaps the privatization examples biggest reason church members leave Mormonism. There is plenty of evidence to In Favor Essay show the Book of Abraham is fraudulent, a false bill of sales, an privatization examples invitation to join a Ponzi scheme, and so much worse. If the church embraces this book, then we must wonder why so very little has been said about it at General Conferences held since the 1970s. Movie Review. Rather, I believe this part of LDS scripture is an embarrassment to the church, so dont be fooled by this statement. As far as the privatization reference to the book of hubris defined, Abraham, Im not sure why the privatization examples small letter b is used. The Book of Mormon is always capitalized. And although many sources on movie review dont capitalize the word book, others do. Privatization. (For example, see here.) It is also capitalized in the explanatory note preceding the book in the LDS canon ( A Translation of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands from the software catacombs of Egypt. The writings of Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the privatization examples Book of Abraham, written by how to be a good parent his own hand, upon papyrus.) The media traditionally capitalize it (i.e. see here and examples here). Even LDS apologists capitalize it. No explanation is given for making it lowercased, but in this article, I will retain the traditional capitalized Book of Abraham and be a good parent leave the underlined portions intact. This book, a record of the biblical prophet and patriarch Abraham, recounts how Abraham sought the blessings of the priesthood, rejected the idolatry of his father, covenanted with Jehovah, married Sarai, moved to Canaan and Egypt, and received knowledge about the Creation.

The book of Abraham largely follows the examples biblical narrative but adds important information regarding Abrahams life and teachings. This isnt the software first time where a church publication lifted the Book of Abraham to a lofty position. A church manual boasts: The book of privatization examples, Abraham is an evidence of the inspired calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It came forth at a time when the andy study of the ancient Egyptian language and culture was just beginning.

The scholars of the 1800s had scarcely begun to explore the field of Egyptology, and yet, with no formal training in ancient languages and examples no knowledge of ancient Egypt (except his work with the Book of Mormon), Joseph Smith began his translation of the ancient manuscripts. His knowledge and ability came through the power and gift of God, together with his own determination and faith. ( Pearl of Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. Be A Good. 29). Another one states: In 1967 eleven fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri were rediscovered by Doctor Aziz S. Privatization. Atiya, in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Studies of In Favor of School Essay, them have confirmed that they are mainly ancient Egyptian funerary texts of the sort commonly buried with royalty and nobility and designed to guide them through their eternal journeyings. This has renewed the question about the connection between the records and the book of Abraham. Joseph Smith did not explain the method of translating the book of Abraham, just as he did not explain fully how the Book of Mormon was translated. Nevertheless, like the Book of examples, Mormon, the book of hubris defined, Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and privatization power of God ( Church History in the Fulness of Times: Religion 341-43 , p. Review. 258). According to these manuals, Smith was inspired. Even though these are mainly Egyptian funerary texts and not writings from the patriarch Abraham, the reader is privatization supposed to review believe that the book of Abraham is privatization its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.

So what do we do with the operating software Book of Abraham? There are only two possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did receive authentic papyri that contained the writings of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really never had papyri with writings of Abraham. For the sake of argument, lets assume the privatization first possibility is gandhi movie correct and Smith did receive authentic papyri filled with the words of Abraham. Examples. If this is the case, then we still have two more possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics and put them into English, which we have today and hubris defined found in the Book of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really did not know how to privatization examples translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics. If Joseph Smith never had papyri with writings of Abraham, we are left with three possibilities. Movie Review. Joseph Smith was.

As the Gospel Topics essay explains, the Mormon Church continues to embrace the book of Abraham as scripture. In other words, a person must have faith that this book is authentic (#1 in examples the first scenario) and In Favor Uniforms Essay translatable by the hand of Joseph Smith (#1 in examples the second scenario). If the second possibility in either scenario is correct, then the Book of Abraham is In Favor of School Uniforms not what it is touted to be by LDS Church leaders. The book of Abraham was first published in 1842 and was canonized as part of the Pearl of privatization examples, Great Price in 1880. Software. The book originated with Egyptian papyri that Joseph Smith translated beginning in privatization examples 1835. Many people saw the In Favor of School papyri, but no eyewitness account of the translation survives, making it impossible to reconstruct the process. Only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smiths possession exist today. The relationship between those fragments and the text we have today is privatization largely a matter of conjecture. Lets provide a little background.

In July 1835 Joseph Smith met a traveling showman by the name of Michael H. In Fifth Business. Chandler who was displaying four Egyptian mummies in privatization examples Kirtland, Ohio. Along with the mummies, Chandler possessed two rolls of papyri that contained a number of hieroglyphics, which he sold to the Mormons for $2,400. Techniques. The next day, Smith proclaimed that the manuscripts were actually written by none other than two Old Testament patriarchs: I commenced the translation of some of the privatization examples characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt, etc. ( History of the Church, 2:23536.) To stumble on such an incredible find was, in itself, an amazing stroke of what Mormons would view as divine providence. Gandhi Movie. Imagine for examples, a moment what a discovery this would be if, in fact, Smith had really come across the writings of Abraham and Joseph.

They would be priceless, predating the Book of Genesis by about five hundred years. If, as some LDS leaders believed, the Book of Abraham was actually written by the patriarch himself, they would be the only autograph manuscripts of biblical personalities currently available. For example, President Wilford Woodruff said, The Lord is hubris defined Blessing Joseph with Power to reveal mysteries of the kingdom of God; to translate through the urim and Thummim Ancient records Hyeroglyphics as old as Abraham or Adam. . . . Joseph the examples Seer has presented us some of the gandhi review Book of Abraham which was written by his own hand but hid from the privatization examples knowledged of Essay, man for the last four thousand years. . . . Privatization. (Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for Worlds End: The Diaries of Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1993), 50-51. Ellipsis and spelling in original. For more information on this topic, see here.)

Of the two papyri, Smith chose to focus on operating software the one he claimed was written by the patriarch Abraham, who, according to the text, supposedly held the priesthood well before it was even formulated by God in examples the days of the Levites. In 1842 the andy Mormon periodical Times and Seasons printed everything that Smith was able to translate until that time. Privatization. These were the 1 March, 15 March, and 16 May 1842 issues of the Times and Seasons. Circumstances would prohibit him from translating the rest of the Book of Abraham papyrus or the Uniforms Essay other papyrus that he called the Book of Joseph. In 1851 Smiths uncompleted translation was published as a part of the Pearl of Great Price . This was canonized in 1880, thus elevating the Book of Abraham to the level of LDS scripture. One of the major doctrines emanating from the privatization examples Book of Abraham is the curse of Uniforms Essay, Cain. Abraham 1:21-26 states, Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the examples loins of Ham, and good was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the examples Egyptians, and thus the themes blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land. The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of privatization examples, Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the andy warhol techniques curse in the land. Privatization Examples. Now the first government of Egypt was established by be a Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal.

Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and privatization judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to good parent imitate that order established by examples the fathers in be a good the first generations, in privatization examples the days of the first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood. Smith used this passage in 1836 to claim that those with African heritage had inherited this curse, the impetus for the later ban of Blacks from the software LDS priesthood. It wasnt until 1978 when this stringent ban was lifted. Today, however, no changes have been made to this portion of LDS scripture and the entire book remains in the standard works canon. In 1966, eleven pieces of privatization examples, Smiths original papyri were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which were later turned over to the LDS Church. This discovery would be a major blow to the idea that the Book of Abraham should be considered authentic scripture from the patriarch. Thus, the Gospel Topics essay says that only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smiths possession exist today and that there is a large segment of the scroll now missing. Themes. Such an assertion is simply not true.

Egyptologists have said that, if anything is missing, it is a minute fraction. When Smiths translation of the Egyptian hieroglyphics is considered, we can see that he had no clue as to what he was doing. For instance, he took one backwards E letterwhich, in the Egyptian, was part of examples, a series of letters that mean pooland turned this letter into warhol techniques, 73 words (Abraham 1:13-14). In fact, this practice was common throughout his translation. Charles Larson states, On some occasions Joseph Smith separated a single Egyptian word to derive characters for his translation, while at other times he combined more than one Egyptian word into a single set of characters. In all cases his translation attributes a far more complex explanation to the Egyptian letters and words of examples, Papyrus Joseph Smith XI than do professional Egyptologists, and Smith ascribes meanings to words which are totally unrelated to their actual denotation. Thus, Joseph Smiths translation is parent completely incorrect in both method and privatization examples content. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 96)

The content of the writing is not even close to what Smith translates, a fact offered by David Persuitte: Papyrus No. XI and its associated pieces were actually a version of what is called the Egyptian Book of Breathings, or a Breathing Permit. The papyri upon which it is andy techniques found are sometimes called Sen-Sen papyri because of the Egyptian word for privatization, breathing, which occurs frequently in the text. The Book of Breathings represents an attempt by the Egyptians to techniques consolidate those elements of their beliefs that were essential parts of their funeral rites. It was, in privatization short, a sort of talisman that was buried with the software dead to assure their well-being in the afterlife. Examples. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the in fifth Book of Mormon , 292). According to Dr.

Robert Ritner from the University of Chicago, the examples Book of Breathings is, for all intents and purposes, intact; there are no substantial missing pieces. He stated, Assuming no reason that this particular Book of Breathings scroll must be expanded much beyond the surviving length, I have now read the entire document from the beginning to the end and have made up what one could make out on the poor copy of the final vignette. The most that is andy techniques missing from this text is simply two columns of Egyptian hieratic and possibly a small vignette, but other than that there would be nothing more that would inflate its current length other than its current size. It is both unprecedented and privatization unreasonable to assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter, a narrative history about Abraham and his descendants, would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle, and in fifth business end is devoted specifically to the resurrection of an Egyptian priest. It would disrupt the document and have nothing to do with this content. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , quoted at 40 minutes) Ill quote Dr. Ritner elsewhere in this paper, as he is an Egyptologist who is most willing to talk about this specific Book of Abraham issue.

As a scholar, he is not very impressed with the scholarship of the privatization examples Mormon community, and the Gospel Topics essay did not convince him that the Book of Abraham is authentic. In a review of the essay called A Response to Translation and hubris defined Historicity of the Book of Abraham,' Dr. Ritner wrote: The recent web posting on the Book of Abraham by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints (hereafter the LDS church) represents new reflection on a document whose authenticity as verifiable history is now officially acknowledged to be in serious dispute. Thus the position paper concludes with a concession by privatization noting (unnamed) modern scholarly opposition to the Book of Abraham, followed by a defense against any such scholarly debate: The veracity and operating value of the book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the books translation and historicity. Rather, the truth of the book is sought in ways that cannot be verified externally, relying exclusively upon traditional faith: a careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit.

Such a declaration may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on examples closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are their reasons for rejecting the In Favor of School Uniforms Essay Book of Abraham. Privatization. Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in gandhi movie scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. The significance of these apologetic publications will be discussed below. If scholarly dispute over translation and historicity is privatization examples ultimately irrelevant, why bother to devote extended paragraphs to rebuttals of unmentioned objections on Translation and the Book of Abraham, The Papyri, and The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World? According to Dr. Gandhi. Ritner, the works cited for this paper is not much different from the LDS scholars who have been attempting to defend their scripture over the years. This makes sense because, most likely, these same scholars are the ones who probably wrote the unattributed Gospel Topics essay in the first place! These Mormon scholars have created a number of examples, theories have been proposed over the years to prop up the efficacy of the Book of Abraham. In fact, consider the Hidden Meaning theory, the Mnemonic Device theory, the Any Egyptian Connection theory, the Scribes Did It theory, the Missing Black and Red Scroll theory, the Mistaken Identity theory, the Catalyst Theory, and the Nobody Really Understands Egyptian Anyway theory. Operating. Some of these theories are as far-fetched as Bigfoot eating the Loch Ness Monster.

Not one of these theories has been able to hold up when the evidence is considered. (See chapter 11 (The Intellectual Approaches) in privatization By His Own Hand Upon Papyru s by Charles Larson for explanations of each theory.) Instead of focusing on missing pieces of the Book of warhol techniques, Abraham (for which there is little evidence), perhaps LDS scholars and apologists should be dealing with the problems caused by what we is privatization examples available. Be A Good Parent. Absolutely nothing that we have today provides any support for Smiths LDS scripture. We do know some things about the translation process. The word translation typically assumes an expert knowledge of privatization examples, multiple languages. Joseph Smith claimed no expertise in any language. He readily acknowledged that he was one of the weak things of the world, called to speak words sent from heaven. Speaking of the translation of the Book of Mormon, the In Favor Lord said, You cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me. The same principle can be applied to the book of privatization examples, Abraham. The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and power of God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham. The LDS article explains how Smith claimed no expertise in any language, including Egyptian. By making this admission, the argument maintains that Smith must have been given divine revelation to make his Book of Abraham translation. After all, he had previously done this a few years before with the reformed Egyptian text of the Book of Mormon, which he claimed he did by the gift and power of God. And voila, here are the same words being used in this essay to show how his divine inspiration (rather than his understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics) allowing him to software make his translation of the Book of Abraham.

Is this a coincidence? Hardly. Comparing the Book of Mormon to the Book of Abraham, Christian author H. Michael Marquardt states: Only part of the privatization original 1829 manuscript of the Book of Mormon pages of the themes in fifth dictated text is extent. We do not have the gold plates to determine how accurate Joseph Smiths dictation from the Egyptian was.

But we do have the Egyptian papyri, Joseph Smiths Egyptian Alphabet, and the Book of Abraham Translation Manuscripts. Examples. These later manuscripts together with Joseph Smiths journal and knowing when his scribes worked with him all place the dictation process in the last half of 1835. With all of this historical background we have enough information to examine Joseph Smiths competence with the how to parent ancient Egyptian language. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 407.) Lets consider how the LDS prophet was able to get away with this ploy. In Smiths day few people could have been considered experts in the field of Egyptology. The famous Rosetta Stone, currently on display at the British Museum in London, was discovered accidentally in 1799 by Napoleons troops in Egypt. Privatization. A number of scholars worked for years to decipher the stone, which contained hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek characters. In Favor Essay. Finally, Jean Francois Champollion announced his results in 1822. Yet getting this information communicated to a general population would take many years before the Information Age took place. As Dr. Ritner explains:

In the 1840s in the United States, the ancient Egyptian language was virtually unknown. It had only been to be deciphered in privatization 1822 and that knowledge simply had not crossed the Atlantic. So any interpretation given to an Egyptian document in 1842 or 45 or 50 or even 1860 would have been believable to a general audience. Hubris Defined. We would have no way of examples, comparing it with the actual truth ( The Lost Book of Abraham, 14 minutes in) By 1861, T. Themes. Deveria had noted a series of anachronisms and absurdities in privatization the supposed translations and woodcut vignettes, and in 1912 a solicitation for professional opinions on the matter drew uniformly derisive assessments from A. H. Techniques. Sayce, W. M. Examples. F. Uniforms. Petrie, J. H. Breasted, A. C. Mace, J. Peters, S. A. B. Mercer, E. Meyer, and F. W. von Bissing Dr. Ritner did an privatization extended study on the different papyri that were discovered in 1967. As far as Facsmilies 1 and 2, he writes: Comparison of the surviving initial vignette of the Hor papyrus with Facsimile 1 proves beyond doubt, as the LDS web post agrees, that it was the vignette that became facsimile 1. However, neither Facsimile 1 nor 2 is a true copy, and both contain added forgeries, including the operating software human-head and knife of the supposed idolatrous priest of Elkenah (Fig. 3 on Facsimile 1) as can be seen in examples the crude pencil additions to the original papyrus sheet as mounted and improved for publication by themes the LDS church in 1842. NOTE: Go here to see an excellent portrayal of Facsimiles 1-3 by Infographics. In a video, he explained,

What this document really is is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest, which begins with an invocation to privatization the god of techniques, mummification, probably, certainly with a picture of the god of mummification, to privatization examples ensure the priests continued existence into the next world, and then its followed by gandhi a series of statements where Oh deified Horus, may you walk as you head down in life, may your ears function, may your eyes function, may the gods receive you. Long series of invocations on this, essentially assuring that this dead priest is able to function in death as he had in life, but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Abraham is not mentioned once. ( The Lost Book of Abraham video, 38 minutes in) Smiths papyrus was both torn and attached to a backing that held it in place. On the backing someone, possibly Smith, filled in areas that were missing. An examination of privatization, Joseph Smiths Facsimile No.

1 exposes a number of discrepancies between Smiths interpretation and that of modern Egyptologists. Smith claimed that the facsimile portrays Abraham lying on an altar. Standing next to him is the idolatrous priest Elkanah who holds a knife in his hand. Smith claimed that Elkanah was attempting to movie review offer Abraham as a sacrifice. Below the altar are figures that Smith describes as idolatrous gods.

Smith named a bird that hovers above the head of Abraham as the angel of the Lord. Richard A. Parker, once the chairman of the department of Egyptology at Brown University, disagreed with Smiths assessment. Privatization Examples. He claimed: This is a well-known scene from the Osiris mysteries, with Anubis, the jackal-headed god, on the left ministering to the dead Osiris on the bier. The pencilled(?) restoration is incorrect. Anubis should be jackal-headed. The left arm of Osiris is in reality lying at his side under him. The apparent upper hand is part of the how to good wing of a second bird which is hovering over the erect phallus of Osiris (now broken away). The second bird is Isis and she is magically impregnated by the dead Osiris and then later gives birth to Horus who avenges his father and takes over his inheritance.

The complete bird represents Nephthys, sister to Osiris and Isis. Beneath the bier are the four canopic jars with heads representative of the four sons of privatization, Horus, human-headed Imseti, baboon-headed Hapy, jackal-headed Duamutef and falcon-headed Kebehsenuf. (Richard A. Parker, The Joseph Smith Papyri: A Preliminary Report, Dialogue 3, no. 2 (summer 1968): 86.) For a comparison of Joseph Smiths interpretation of Facsimile 1 compared to what it really was, click here. Other problems develop when Facsimile No. 2 is considered. This circular drawing supposedly verified the LDS teaching that God lives near a planet called Kolob. Smith also claimed it gave reference to grand Key-words of the operating Priesthood. (Explanation of figure seven opposite Facsimile No. 2.) Key words are an essential part of the LDS temple ceremony. Speaking specifically about Facsmilie 2, Dr.

Ritner states, Facsimile 2 derives from a separate burial, for an individual named Sheshonq. Large portions of this published facsimile were improperly inserted from unrelated papyri. All of Smiths published explanations are incorrect, including the examples lone example defended by themes business the new web posting. According to Egyptologist Stephen E. Examples. Thompson:

Facsimile 2 is a drawing of an Egyptian funerary amulet known as a hypocephalus, which was placed under the head of the mummy and In Favor of School was intended to protect the head of the deceased, provide him with the suns life-giving warmth, and to make it possible for him to join the sun god Re in his celestial boat, and thereby insure his continued, pleasant existence in the next life. (Stephen Thompson, Egyptology and the Book of Mormon, Dialogue 28, no. 1 (spring 1995): 14950.) Thompson went on examples to say: Concerning Joseph Smiths interpretations of the figures in this facsimile, it has been stated that his explanations, are, in general, reasonable in light of modern Egyptological knowledge. A comparison of Smiths interpretations with current Egyptological scholarship shows that this statement is of School Uniforms also incorrect. (Ibid., 150.) For a look at the translation of Facsimilie 2 by Smith versus what the Egyptian really said, click here. And for Facsimile 3, he writes, In Facsimile 3, Smith confuses human and animal heads and males with females. No amount of special pleading can change the privatization examples female Isis the great, the gods mother (Facsimile 3, Fig. 2) into the male King Pharaoh, whose name is software given in examples the characters above his hand, as even the LDS author Michael D. Rhodes accepts. Here Smith also misunderstands Pharaoh as a personal name rather than a title meaning king, so he reads king king for a goddesss name that he claims to have understood on the papyrus!

For a look at Facsimile 3, click here. When the manuscript of the Book of Abraham became available in the 1960s, scholars were now able to investigate whether or not Joseph Smith was indeed a prophet inspired by God with the ability to translate another language. As it turns out, Smith had no clue about the Egyptian language. Marquardt writes, Joseph Smiths work on Uniforms Essay his Book of examples, Abraham Egyptian alphabet, seven years later shows that he could not understand or interpret documents written anciently. From examinations done by Egyptologists, their studies show that Smith had not the slightest idea what the Egyptian characters meant relating to names, places, and hubris defined subject matter. These manuscript pages clearly show that Joseph Smith pretended to translate Egyptian records.

The claim that they had been written by the biblical Abraham is examples without a solid foundation. The manuscript pages show that Smith used the Bible like he did when he dictated the Book of Mormon text. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 406.) Egyptologists are unanimous that Smiths translation was inaccurate and how to good parent that his source was, in fact, of pagan origin, having nothing to do with the patriarch Abraham. As Charles Larson explains, Based on privatization examples comparisons of the Metropolitan papyri to good every available resource, including descriptions contemporary with Joseph Smith of the so-called Abraham and Joseph scrolls, as well as to a number of privatization examples, original translation manuscripts and other notes of the time, the papyrus scroll Joseph Smith represented as containing the writings of Abraham was shown to be merely a common pagan funeral papyrus of late date known as the Book of Breathings. The scroll thought to contain the writings of Joseph of Egypt was also identified as a typical late copy of the Egyptian Book of the Bead, which had been prepared for Uniforms, a woman named Ta-shert-Min. Neither scroll ever had anything to do with the biblical patriarchs Abraham or Joseph, except in the mind of Joseph Smith. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 173-74.) He also wrote on page 175: Not a single word, thought, or concept from Joseph Smiths Book of Abraham, including his explanations of his three facsimiles, is in any way related to examples the subject matter of the common Egyptian funeral texts from which they were supposedly translated. Dr.

Lanny Bell, who teaches Egyptology at Brown University, adds, From the evidence we have today, its quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the Book of Joseph in parent front of him in the form of these papyri because they bear no relationship to the context of these stories or his translation. Their findings are exactly the same as the research given by examples Egyptologists going back to the 19 th century, including Dr. A. H. In Fifth Business. Sayce (Oxford University), Dr. Privatization Examples. W.M. Flinders Petrie (London University), Dr. James H. Breasted (University of Chicago), Dr.

Arthur C. Andy. Mace (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), Dr. Privatization Examples. John Peters (University of Pennsylvania), Dr. Edward Meyer (University of Berlin), Dr. Good Parent. Freidrick Freiheer Von Bissing (University of Munich), and Dr. Samnuel A. B. Mercer (Western Theological Seminary). (For these quotes, see What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know , written by Edmond C. Gruss and Lane A. Thuet, pp. 162-164.) In fact, we know of no reputable Egyptologist (outside of the LDS Churchs John Gee) who has accepted Smiths translation. On many particulars, the book of Abraham is consistent with historical knowledge about the ancient world. Some of privatization, this knowledge, which is discussed later in this essay, had not yet been discovered or was not well known in 1842. Themes Business. But even this evidence of ancient origins, substantial though it may be, cannot prove the truthfulness of the book of Abraham any more than archaeological evidence can prove the privatization exodus of the Israelites from Egypt or the Resurrection of the Son of God. The book of Abrahams status as scripture ultimately rests on faith in the saving truths found within the book itself as witnessed by the Holy Ghost.

This claim is be a very similar to one made in a 2000 church manual: The Prophet Joseph Smith never communicated his method of translating these records. Privatization. As with all other scriptures, a testimony of the of School Essay truthfulness of these writing is primarily a matter of faith. The greatest evidence of the examples truthfulness of the be a book of Abraham is not found in an analysis of physical evidence nor historical background, but in prayerful consideration of its contents and power. ( The Pearl of privatization, Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. 28). Ahh, so here we have it. Apparently a Mormon is hubris defined encouraged to disregard any evidence that might weigh against the Book of privatization, Abraham. Lets take the examples given in in fifth the essay regarding archaeological evidence: Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt: Of course, we have no archaeological evidence from the Exodus, nor would we expect to find anything. After all, the people of Israel were nomads for 40 years and did not build anything. Nothing will ever be found to support this biblical story. Its interesting that this example is used.

New evidence continually comes up in the Holy Land to support the story of the Bible. (For examples of evidence found in 2013, see here.) It is possible to examples visit Jericho, Ai, Caesarea, and Bet Shean to get an idea of what took place thousands of years ago. Certainly an element of faith is needed to review accept the examples events and people talked about in warhol techniques the Bible, but the historical/archaeological evidence is a huge support. In fact, there is much more to privatization examples support the Bible than the Book of Mormon, for that matter! The Resurrection: Talk about evidence! According to Paul in the fifteenth chapter of 1 Corinthians: 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the hubris defined third day according to the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of examples, above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.

7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the themes apostles. Privatization Examples. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of In Favor Essay, one born out of privatization examples, due time. There is good historical evidence for the resurrection. Of course, it still takes faith. Themes Business. But the leap of faith is a jump into the light, not the darkness. Privatization Examples. (For a fuller depiction of reasons why a person should believe in the resurrection, click here.) These cases are much different from the faith a person must have to believe in the Book of Abraham, for which the evidence screams fraud rather than lending support to its veracity. The Bible is software very clear that we must test everything (1 Thess. 5:21).

Indeed, we are supposed to test the spirits to see if they are true for many false prophets have gone out into privatization, the world (1 John 4:1). Gandhi Movie Review. Jesus described in the Sermon on the Mount how there are many false prophets masquerading as sheep when they are really ravenous wolves. When the Bereans tested what Paul taught them in Acts 17, they were considered nobler than the Thessalonians because they went to scripture to ascertain truth. Privatization. To suggest, as this essay seems to do, that the facts ought to take a back seat to faith is flawed, no matter how spiritual a Mormon may think it sounds. At this point, I want to bring something up about the language. The Jews in those days spoke Hebrew.

There is no evidence a Jew ever wrote using Egyptian hieroglyphics. It would seem that Moseswho authored the Pentateuchis the more likely candidate to have written in themes Egyptian since he grew up in examples the palace of Pharaoh! Of course, Abraham did travel to Egypt, as recorded in Genesis chapter 12, and even stayed there for a short time. But this was not the review land of privatization, his friends and family. Instead, it was a place where, according to Abraham 1:5, the worshiping of the gods of the heathen was common. Thus, a Mormon needs to ask why Abraham would have written in a non-native language and style (hieroglyphics) belonging to pagans who worshiped other gods.

It is also curious that, just by chance, these very words of Abraham found their way to Kirtland, Ohio, and into warhol techniques, the hands of a man who just so happened had the ability to translate them. Yet the English of the Book of Abraham is completely out of context with the Egyptian style. Dr. Ritner explains that the translation provided by Smith is just like trying to mix Chinese and Ethiopian: The narrative style of the Book of Abraham does not correspond to Egyptian verbiage. Its not the kind of thing Egyptians would say, they wouldnt say it in that way, and it certainly would never appear in examples that way in a context such as this. It couldnt possibly be more out of gandhi movie review, place. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , 40 minutes in) Well consider more details that are detrimental to the Book of Abraham, and when everything is put together, the chances the Book of privatization examples, Abraham is authentic scripture lands between slim and none. The Book of Abraham as Scripture. Thousands of years ago, the prophet Nephi learned that one purpose of the Book of good parent, Mormon was to establish the truth of the privatization Bible. In a similar way, the book of Abraham supports, expands, and hubris defined clarifies the biblical account of Abrahams life.

In the biblical account, God covenants with Abraham to make of thee a great nation. The book of Abraham provides context for that covenant by showing that Abraham was a seeker of great knowledge and a follower of righteousness who chose the right path in spite of great hardship. He rejected the wickedness of his fathers household and spurned the idols of the privatization examples surrounding culture, despite the threat of warhol, death. In the Bible, Gods covenant with Abraham appears to begin during Abrahams life. According to privatization examples the book of Abraham, the covenant began before the foundation of the earth and was passed down through Adam, Noah, and In Favor Uniforms Essay other prophets. Abraham thus takes his place in a long line of prophets and patriarchs whose mission is to privatization preserve and extend Gods covenant on earth. The heart of this covenant is the priesthood, through which the blessings of salvation, even of Uniforms Essay, life eternal are conveyed. In order to believe that we have new things to learn about Abraham, a person must trust that this book is privatization examples true. Hubris Defined. To get to this point, Joseph Smith must be trusted. When we look at privatization examples, the life of the Mormon founder, doubts should be placed in our minds.

The book of Abraham clarifies several teachings that are obscure in the Bible. Life did not begin at birth, as is commonly believed. Prior to andy coming to examples earth, individuals existed as spirits. In a vision, Abraham saw that one of the spirits was like unto God. This divine being, Jesus Christ, led other spirits in organizing the earth out of materials or preexisting matter, not ex nihilo or out of nothing, as many Christians later came to believe. Abraham further learned that mortal life was crucial to movie the plan of happiness God would provide for His children: We will prove them herewith, God stated, to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them, adding a promise to add glory forever upon the faithful. Nowhere in the Bible is the purpose and examples potential of earth life stated so clearly as in the book of Abraham. A quick scan through the software third chapter of the Book of privatization examples, Abraham (where the information from this part of the essay came) can easily show how Joseph Smith merely took verses from other parts of the Old Testament and restated them here. Writes Marquardt, While dictating the Book of Abraham (what is now chapter 2) Joseph Smith used the KJV Genesis as a guide and text for part of his story.

The actual wording in the story suggests the use of Genesis in composing this work. This would indicate that the wording dictated was basically a copying effort of a preestablished text. At times he revised the KVV text to make it an autobiographical account by Abraham. The wording as printed in the KJV was used as part of the text Abraham supposedly wrote by his own hand. It is clear that Joseph Smith had the Bible open to the book of Genesis as he dictated this section of the Book of be a good, Abraham. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 402.) If a plagiarist wanted to make his writing sound biblical, what would keep him from examples copying key phrases and ideas from the book already in movie review his hands? Consider, for privatization examples, example, the following: 2:11: And I will bless them that bless thee, and of School Essay curse them that curse thee. (Compare Genesis 12:3.) 3:11: Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face, as one man talketh with another; and he told me of the examples works which his hands had made. Compare with Exodus 33:11 and Numbers 12:8. 3:14: And it was in the night time when the andy Lord spake these words unto me: I will multiply thee, and thy seed after thee, like unto these; and if thou canst count the number of sands, so shall be the number of thy seeds. Compare with Genesis 22:17.

3:23: And God saw these souls that they were good, and privatization he stood in the midst of them, and he said: These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and he saw that they were good; and movie he said unto me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born. Compare with Jeremiah 1:5. 3:27: And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one answered like unto the Son of Man: Here am I, send me. And another answered and said: Here am I, send me. And the privatization Lord said: I will send the first. Compare with Isaiah 6:8.

But there are other odds parts to operating the Book of Abraham. For example, in Abraham 1:10, it reads, Even the examples thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon the altar which stood by the hill called Potiphars Hill, at the head of the plain of Olishem. (Also see verse 20.) Potiphar was the husband of the woman who made it look like the biblical Joseph had tried to rape her. Movie. This event took place several generations after Abraham. Perhaps this hill could have been named after another Potiphar. But I have no doubt that Joseph got this name from the privatization examples Bible. In Abraham 1:16, it reads, And his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, my name is andy warhol techniques Jehovah, and I have heard thee, and have come down to deliver thee, and to privatization take thee away from thy fathers house, and from all thy kinsfolk, into a strange land which thou knowest not of. And Abraham 2:8 says, My name is Jehovah, and I know the end from the beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee. It must be understood that Jehovah is an English word. It is not found in the Bible, as it is neither Greek or Hebrew. Rather, the hubris defined word is a result of combining the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, a word for God) with Adonai, a Greek word meaning Lord. Combining the vowels from the privatization Greek and inserting them into the Hebrew YHWH created Jehovah. This was done well after the time that both the Bible and the Book of Abraham were originally written. The Mormon must explain how the made-up English word Jehovah get into the Egyptian language when it was not even invented until a thousand years after Christ.

In 2:16-17, it reads, Therefore, eternity was our covering and our rock and In Favor Uniforms our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by the way of Jershon, to come to the land of Canaan. Privatization Examples. Now I, Abraham, built an altar in how to good the land of Jershon. However, Jershon is a Book of Mormon place name found in Alma 35 and is not mentioned once in the Bible. Privatization. Neither Abraham nor Moses would have had knowledge of New World names. Is this just another way Smith added words he had already created to show that his new revelation added new details and themes in fifth business was somehow necessary as a supplement to Genesis? Abraham 2:22-24 reads: And it came to pass when I was come near to enter into privatization, Egypt, the Lord said unto me: Behold, Sarai, thy wife, is a very fair woman to Uniforms look upon; Therefore it shall come to pass, when the privatization examples Egyptians shall see her, they will sayShe is his wife; and they will kill you, but they will save her alive; therefore see that ye do on this wise: Let her say unto the Egyptians, she is thy sister, and thy soul shall live. According to hubris defined the Book of Abraham, God told Abraham to lie. If true, this leads to two problems: 1) God is culpable of lying because he told someone (Abraham) to do this.

2) This contradicts the privatization examples biblical version which, for whatever reason, leaves this part out completely. Then, referring to movie review the creation of the privatization world in Abraham chapter 4 and 5, Abraham moves to the plural use of gods (i.e. the Gods, organized and formed the techniques heavens and the earth, the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters, and they (the Gods) comprehended the privatization examples light, for it was bright, and the Gods called the In Favor of School light Day, and and the Gods ordered the expanse), using the plural instead of the singular for the creation of the world. Indeed, the examples Hebrew Elohim is plural, but no reputable translator has ever translated this word as gods. When it comes to the last two chapters of the Book of Abraham, nothing is In Favor unique. In fact, Abraham 4 and Genesis 1 are parallel. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 1 and Abraham 4.

Abraham 4:1: And then the Lord said: Let us go down. And they went down at the beginning, and they, that is the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth. Genesis 1:1: In the beginning God created the privatization examples heavens and the earth. Abraham 4:2: And the earth, after it was formed, was empty and desolate, because they had not formed anything but the warhol earth; and darkness reigned upon the face of the deep, and examples the Spirit of the warhol techniques Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2: And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon privatization examples, the face of the deep.

And the gandhi movie review Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Abraham 4:3: And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light; and there was light. Genesis 1:3: And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. Abraham 4:4: And they (the Gods) comprehended the privatization examples light, for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused it to be divided, from the darkness. Genesis 1:4: And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. Abraham 4:5: And the Gods called the light Day, and the darkness they called Night. And it came to pass that from the evening until morning they called night; and gandhi movie from the privatization morning until the evening they called day; and this was the first, or the themes in fifth beginning, of examples, that which they called day and night.

Genesis 1:5: And God called the light Day, and warhol the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. Abraham 4:6: And the Gods also said: Let there be an examples expanse in the midst of the waters, and it shall divide the waters from the waters. Genesis 1:6: And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the hubris defined waters from the waters. Abraham 4:7: And the Gods ordered the expanse, so that it divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so, even as they ordered. Genesis 1:7: And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. Abraham 4:8 And the Gods called the examples expanse, Heaven. Review. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and privatization it came to hubris defined pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and this was the second time that they called night and day. Genesis 1:8: And God called the firmament Heaven. And the privatization evening and the morning were the second day.

Abraham 4:9: And the Gods ordered, saying: Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the operating software earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered; Genesis 1:9: And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. Abraham 4:10: And the Gods pronounced the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, Great Waters; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed. Genesis 1:10: And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. Abraham 4:11: And the Gods said: Let us prepare the earth to bring forth grass; the examples herb yielding seed; the fruit tree yielding fruit, after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness upon the earth; and it was so, even as they ordered. Genesis 1:11: And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the hubris defined herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. Abraham 4:12: And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from its own seed, and examples the herb to In Favor of School Uniforms bring forth herb from its own seed, yielding seed after his kind; and privatization examples the earth to bring forth the tree from its own seed, yielding fruit, whose seed could only bring forth the same in itself, after his kind; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.

Genesis 1:12: And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. Abraham 4:13: And it came to pass that they numbered the days; from the evening until the morning they called night; and it came to pass, from the morning until the evening they called day; and it was the third time. Genesis 1:13: And the evening and the morning were the third day. Abraham 4:14: And the Uniforms Essay Gods organized the lights in the expanse of the heaven, and caused them to divide the day from the night; and organized them to be for signs and for seasons, and for days and for years; Genesis 1:14: And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the privatization examples day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. Abraham 4:15: And organized them to hubris defined be for lights in the expanse of the heaven to give light upon examples, the earth; and it was so. Genesis 1:15: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

Abraham 4:16: And the warhol Gods organized the two great lights, the privatization greater light to rule the day, and Essay the lesser light to rule the night; with the examples lesser light they set the stars also; Genesis 1:16: And God made two great lights; the be a parent greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the privatization stars also. Abraham 4:17-18: And the review Gods set them in the expanse of the privatization examples heavens, to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to cause to divide the light from the darkness. And the be a good Gods watched those things which they had ordered until they obeyed. Genesis 1:17-18: And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. Abraham 4:19: And it came to pass that it was from privatization examples evening until morning that it was night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that it was day; and movie it was the fourth time. Genesis 1:19: And the privatization evening and the morning were the fourth day. Abraham 4:20: And the Gods said: Let us prepare the waters to bring forth abundantly the gandhi movie moving creatures that have life; and the fowl, that they may fly above the earth in the open expanse of heaven. Genesis 1:20: And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the privatization earth in the open firmament of heaven. Abraham 4:21: And the Gods prepared the waters that they might bring forth great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters were to bring forth abundantly after their kind; and every winged fowl after their kind. And the Gods saw that they would be obeyed, and that their plan was good.

Genesis 1:21: And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. Abraham 4:22: And the Gods said: We will bless them, and cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and fill the themes in fifth waters in the seas or great waters; and cause the fowl to multiply in privatization the earth. Genesis 1:22: And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the gandhi movie waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. Abraham 4:23: And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and it was the privatization examples fifth time. Genesis 1:23: And the operating evening and the morning were the fifth day. Abraham 4:24: And the Gods prepared the earth to bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the examples earth after their kind; and review it was so, as they had said. Genesis 1:24: And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and privatization beast of the software earth after his kind: and it was so. Abraham 4:25: And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth the beasts after their kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind; and the Gods saw they would obey.

Genesis 1:25: And God made the privatization examples beast of the andy earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. Abraham 4:26-27: And the privatization examples Gods took counsel among themselves and said: Let us go down and form man in our image, after our likeness; and we will give them dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. Gandhi Review. So the Gods went down to organize man in their own image, in examples the image of the business Gods to form they him, male and female to form they them. Genesis 1:26-27: And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over privatization examples the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in be a parent the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Abraham 4:28: And the Gods said: We will bless them.

And the Gods said: We will cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, and to have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Genesis 1:28: And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and privatization examples multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Abraham 1:29: And the Gods said: Behold, we will give them every herb bearing seed that shall come upon the face of all the earth, and every tree which shall have fruit upon it; yea, the fruit of the tree yielding seed to them we will give it; it shall be for their meat. Genesis 1:29: And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and how to good parent every tree, in the which is the examples fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. Abraham 4:30: And to every beast of the gandhi earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, behold, we will give them life, and also we will give to them every green herb for meat, and all these things shall be thus organized. Genesis 1:30: And to every beast of the earth, and to privatization every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and operating it was so. Abraham 4:31: And the Gods said: We will do everything that we have said, and organize them; and behold, they shall be very obedient. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning they called night; and it came to examples pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and they numbered the sixth time. Genesis 1:31: And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

While its not word for word, Abraham chapter 4 directly correlates with Genesis 1. A coincidence? Obviously not. Smith was intent on changing the singular God with the plural Gods. And at the end of each of the days, he used the same formula. Yet Joseph Smith had a chance to change Genesis 1 in his Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. However, even though he translated this chapter just a couple years before, he did not use gods for God. In a single stroke, Smith uses the Book of Essay, Abraham to contradict both the Bible and, for that matter, the Book of Mormon (which Smith called the most correct book on earth). This change goes against the very teaching of the Pentateuch, as its cornerstone is Deuteronomy 6:4. Called the Shemah, the most important verse in Jewish history clearly states, Hear O Israel, the Lord thy God, the Lord is one. Jesus quoted this in Mark 12:29.

Literally, it says that God is one essence; there can be no plurality of gods. Examples. To believe this is to acquiesce to the pagan gods of the surrounding nations. Throughout the Bible, God is quite adamant that there are no gods before or after me (singular) in themes Isaiah 43:10, and in Isaiah 44:6-8, God claims to know of no other gods. Consider Genesis 1:26-27 in relation to Abraham 4:26-27. Bill McKeever explains.

how a Mormon must demonstrate that the privatization preincarnate Jehovah had a body of In Favor Uniforms Essay, flesh and bones at the time the conversation in privatization examples Genesis 1:26, 27 took place. Tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith admitted that Jesus did not always have a tangible body ( Doctrines of Salvation , 1:11). A statement issued in 1916 by the First Presidency and Council of the Twelve made it clear that, during the preexistence, Christ did not have a tangible body. In all His dealings with the human family Jesus the Son has represented and yet represents Elohim His Father in power and authority. This is true of Christ in His preexistent, antemortal, or unembodied state, in the which He was known as Jehovah. ( Messages of the how to be a parent First Presidency 5:31, 32. Also cited in the Encyclopedia of privatization, Mormonism 4:720, emphasis mine.)

Speaking in conference in April 1921, Charles W. Penrose noted, The Holy Ghost is a personage of spirit, as Jesus Christ was when he was Jehovah. How To Be A Parent. He was Jehovah from the beginning of the world, according to the history we have in the Old Testament scriptures. He was a personage of spirit, and he came here to the earth that he might be exactly like his brethren and like his Father, and have a body made out of the lower elements of the universe. ( Conference Report , p.12, emphasis mine). In making a similar distinction between the personages of the LDS godhead, Mormon Apostle Bruce McConkie wrote, The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, however, but is a personage of Spirit. (DC 130:22.) He is thus a spirit man, a spirit person, a spirit entity. He lives and moves and has his being separate and examples apart from his fellow Gods. His spirit body is in all respects comparable to the kind of a body that the Lord Jehovah possessed before that beloved and chosen one made flesh his tabernacle by the process of operating software, mortal birth. ( A New Witness for privatization, the Articles of Faith , pp.253, 254, emphasis mine.)

Notice that these LDS leaders concede that prior to His mortal birth, Jesus was unembodied and a personage of spirit. This is the key to review discovering the error so many Mormons make when it comes to the Genesis passages. According to LDS teaching, Jehovah, the preincarnate Jesus, did not have a body until he became flesh by the process of mortal birth. That being so, it is wrong for Mormons to assume that the words image and likeness refer to flesh and examples bones since the Mormon Jehovah (and Mormon Holy Ghost) had no such image or likeness when the In Favor of School Essay conversation in Genesis 1:26 took place. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 2 with Abraham 5. In the final chapter of the Book of Abraham, an even closer copying of privatization examples, Genesis is made. Consider a verse-by-verse comparison: Abraham 5:1: And thus we will finish the heavens and the earth, and all the hosts of them. Genesis 2:1: Thus the hubris defined heavens and the earth were finished, and examples all the host of them. Abraham 5:2: And the Gods said among themselves: On the seventh time we will end our work, which we have counseled; and we will rest on the seventh time from all our work which we have counseled. Genesis 2:2: And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Abraham 5:3: And the Gods concluded upon the seventh time, because that on themes in fifth business the seventh time they would rest from all their works which they (the Gods) counseled among themselves to form; and sanctified it. Privatization. And thus were their decisions at the time that they counseled among themselves to form the heavens and the earth.

Genesis 2:3: And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and gandhi made. Abraham 5:4 And the Gods came down and formed these the generations of the heavens and of the earth, when they were formed in examples the day that the Gods formed the hubris defined earth and privatization the heavens, Genesis 2:4: These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the of School Uniforms earth and the heavens, Abraham 5:5: According to all that which they had said concerning every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew; for the Gods had not caused it to rain upon the earth when they counseled to do them, and had not formed a man to privatization till the ground. Genesis 2:5: And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and gandhi review there was not a man to till the ground. Abraham 5:6: But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the privatization whole face of the ground. Genesis 2:6: But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the how to be a good parent whole face of the ground. Abraham 5:7: And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the privatization mans spirit), and be a put it into examples, him; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. Genesis 2:7: And the software Lord God formed man of the privatization dust of the ground, and breathed into gandhi, his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Abraham 5:8: And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in privatization Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. Abraham 5:8: And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the hubris defined man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the examples man whom he had formed. Abraham 5:9: And out of the ground made the Gods to how to be a good parent grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for examples, food; the tree of life, also, in the midst of the in fifth garden, and privatization examples the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2:9: And out of the ground made the Lord God to gandhi movie grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Abraham 5:10: There was a river running out of Eden, to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads. Genesis 2:10: And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. Abraham 5:11: And the privatization Gods took the man and themes in fifth put him in privatization the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. Genesis 2:15: And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. Abraham 5:12-13: And the Gods commanded the man, saying: Of every tree of the operating garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the privatization examples tree of hubris defined, knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the time that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.

Now I, Abraham, saw that it was after the Lords time, which was after the time of Kolob; for as yet the Gods had not appointed unto Adam his reckoning. Genesis 2:16-17: And the examples Lord God commanded the hubris defined man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Abraham 5:14: And the Gods said: Let us make an help meet for the man, for examples, it is not good that the man should be alone, therefore we will form an help meet for him. Genesis 2:18: And the hubris defined Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Abraham 5:15: And the Gods caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and he slept, and they took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in the stead thereof;

Genesis 2:21: And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; Abraham 5:16: And of the rib which the Gods had taken from man, formed they a woman, and brought her unto the privatization examples man. Genesis 2:22: And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. Abraham 5:17-18: And Adam said: This was bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; now she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man; Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. Genesis 2:23-24: And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and gandhi movie review flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. Abraham 5:19: And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. Genesis 2:25: And they were both naked, the man and privatization examples his wife, and were not ashamed. Abraham 5:20: And out of the ground the Gods formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that should be the name thereof.

Genesis 2:19: And out of the ground the hubris defined Lord God formed every beast of the field, and privatization examples every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. Abraham 5:21: And Adam gave names to all cattle, to the fowl of the air, to every beast of the hubris defined field; and for Adam, there was found an helpmeet for him. Genesis 2:20: And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for privatization examples, Adam there was not found an help meet for him. Considering the Uniforms Essay parallels between Abraham chapters 3 and 4 and Genesis 1 and 2, it is obvious that Joseph Smith had his King James Version of the Bible open when making his translation of the Book of Abraham. Privatization Examples. The structure is clearly the same, while the main change involves changing the singular God into a plurality of gods. Too many questions remain unanswered: If the book of Genesis was really written in Hebrew and of School Essay the Book of Abraham in Egyptian, how could the translations be so alike? Why do no competent scholars translate the Hebrew Elohim into the plural gods? If the entire text became corrupted, when did it become corrupted? (Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments of Genesis are very close to the Masoretic text (AD 900) and do not lend itself to being translated gods) Why does the Book of Mormoncalled by Joseph Smith as the most correct book on privatization examples earthnot correspond with such a translation?

Because there are so many similarities, plagiarism screams out and takes ownership of hubris defined, this situation. Origin of the Book of Abraham. The powerful truths found in the book of Abraham emerged from a set of unique historical events. In the summer of 1835, an entrepreneur named Michael Chandler arrived at Church headquarters in privatization Kirtland, Ohio, with four mummies and multiple scrolls of papyrus. Chandler found a ready audience. Due partly to the exploits of the French emperor Napoleon, the antiquities unearthed in the catacombs of Egypt had created a fascination across the Western world. Chandler capitalized on operating software this interest by touring with ancient Egyptian artifacts and charging visitors a fee to examples see them. These artifacts had been uncovered by Antonio Lebolo, a former cavalryman in hubris defined the Italian army. Lebolo, who oversaw some of the excavations for privatization examples, the consul general of France, pulled 11 mummies from a tomb not far from the of School Uniforms ancient city of privatization, Thebes. Lebolo shipped the artifacts to Italy, and after his death, they ended up in New York.

At some point the mummies and scrolls came into Chandlers possession. By the time the collection arrived in Kirtland, all but four mummies and techniques several papyrus scrolls had already been sold. A group of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland purchased the remaining artifacts for examples, the Church. After Joseph Smith examined the papyri and commenced the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, his history recounts, much to our joy [we] found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham. Translation and the Book of Abraham.

Joseph Smith worked on the translation of the book of Abraham during the summer and review fall of 1835, by which time he completed at least the first chapter and part of the second chapter. His journal next speaks of translating the papyri in the spring of privatization, 1842, after the Saints had relocated to Nauvoo, Illinois. All five chapters of the book of Abraham, along with three illustrations (now known as facsimiles 1, 2, and 3), were published in the Times and Seasons, the Churchs newspaper in Nauvoo, between March and parent May 1842. The book of Abraham was the last of Joseph Smiths translation efforts. In these inspired translations, Joseph Smith did not claim to know the ancient languages of the records he was translating. Much like the Book of Mormon, Josephs translation of the book of Abraham was recorded in the language of the King James Bible. This was the idiom of scripture familiar to early Latter-day Saints, and its use was consistent with the Lords pattern of revealing His truths after the manner of their [His servants] language, that they might come to understanding. A person could make a translation similar to the King James Version of the Bible, but this wouldnt mean that the words would be (for the most part) word for word from the translation originally done in 1611. The point made in the following manual ought to be considered, as the LDS teacher is being instructed how to teach the difficulty of translating from one language into another:

Write a simple sentence on the board and ask for a volunteer to translate it into any foreign language. Privatization. Then ask for a volunteer to how to translate a more difficult sentence (such as Abraham 1:2). Discuss some of the challenges involved in translating writings from one language to another. Privatization Examples. Invite students to look at Abraham Facsimile 1 and translate it into a story line, without looking at the explanation below it. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual Religion 327 , p. 35). This is exactly right. So here we have two resources: the Bible (Genesis) and the Pearl of Great Price (the Book of Abraham). When we compare one translation (from Hebrew to English = Genesis) with another translation (from Egyptian to English = Abraham), we can see that there is andy techniques much similarity with Abraham 4-5 and Genesis 1-2.

For the most part, we can even safely say they use the same words and is, in many parts, written down word for word. The main difference is Smith uses the plural gods for God, but otherwise everything else is the examples same. How can this be if there are many possible translations from themes in fifth business one language to another? Even if the two unique languages (Egyptian and Hebrew) were closely aligned in structure, the odds of having such similar translations are infinitesimally impossible. Just as we can see in the Book of Mormons recitation of the King James Version of the Bible, the word-for-word copying is privatization obvious. There is no coincidence if plagiarism is involved. Josephs translations took a variety of forms.

Some of his translations, like that of the Book of Mormon, utilized ancient documents in his possession. Hubris Defined. Other times, his translations were not based on any known physical records. Josephs translation of examples, portions of the Bible, for example, included restoration of original text, harmonization of contradictions within the themes Bible itself, and inspired commentary. Some Mormons want to distance themselves from a literal symbol-by-symbol translation of the Book of Abraham. For example, in 1992, two LDS scholars wrote, Speculation nevertheless persisted as to the process Joseph may have used in translating the book, including the possibility that even if the papyri were not contemporary with Abraham they contained material that, under inspiration, turned Josephs mind back to ancient Egypt and examples opened it to direct revelation on the experiences of Abraham.

In that case, he may have received these ideas in operating software much the same way he did those of the inspired revision of the Bible. In that instance, acting without original documents, the Prophets only claim was that by divine inspiration he was able to replace incorrect with correct ideas and restore the original biblical meaning (James B. Allen and examples Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints , 1992, p. 77). Hold on a second. Business. The preface to the Book of Abraham reads, A translation of some ancient records, that have fallen into our handsThe writings of Abraham while he was in examples Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus. See History of the Church 2:235, 236, 348-35.

Charles Larson makes a good point when he says, All of warhol techniques, these records show that he [Smith] intended the text of the privatization Book of Abraham to be regarded as nothing less than a direct, literal translation , which he had taken from Abrahams own papyrus record . In Fifth Business. . . .while Joseph Smith presented himself as able to translate and understand ancient languages, and specifically, while he claimed to have produced the Book of Abraham by translating the ancient Egyptian text from privatization examples one of his papyrus scrolls, we now know that the Joseph Smith papyri are in fact pagan Egyptian documents unrelated to In Favor of School Uniforms the biblical Abraham. Furthermore, if, as the 1992 Encyclopedia of Mormonism maintains, Joseph Smith received the Book of Abraham by revelation, not translation, why did he and his followers pay the enormous sum of $2400over $28,000 in 1992 U.S. dollarsfor pagan Egyptian papyri that have nothing to do with the biblical Abraham? ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 95) When the word translation is used, it infers that it came directly from the original source. If this is not the case, then why did the papyrus need to be found in the first place? If Smith could create the privatization examples proper translation without the actual papyrus (or, for that matter, the hubris defined gold plates for the Book of Mormon), it seems as if the actual sources just dont matter. Some evidence suggests that Joseph studied the characters on the Egyptian papyri and attempted to privatization examples learn the Egyptian language. His history reports that, in July 1835, he was continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients. This grammar, as it was called, consisted of columns of hubris defined, hieroglyphic characters followed by English translations recorded in a large notebook by Josephs scribe, William W. Phelps. Another manuscript, written by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, has Egyptian characters followed by explanations. The relationship of these documents to the book of Abraham is not fully understood. Privatization. Neither the rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.

Whatever the role of the grammar book, it appears that Joseph Smith began translating portions of the book of Abraham almost immediately after the In Favor Uniforms Essay purchase of the papyri. Privatization. Phelps apparently viewed Joseph Smith as uniquely capable of understanding the Egyptian characters: As no one could translate these writings, he told his wife, they were presented to President Smith. He soon knew what they were. Notice what is said: Neither the rules nor the hubris defined translations in the grammar book correspond to privatization those recognized by Egyptologists today. Perhaps the writer(s) of the Gospel Topics essay could have been more clear and themes business stated, Egyptologists are clueless how Joseph Smith thinks that he actually translated the privatization Book of warhol, Abraham from the papyrus he had in front of him. With a wave of the hand, the examples writer continues, Whatever the role of the grammar book In essence, the grammar book doesnt play any role because it was filled with gibberish that nobody in the 1830s could have understood. After all, Egyptology was a new science that didnt begin until Napoleons troops discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799. Dr. Ritner explains what he calls the smoking gun courtesy of Jerald and Sandra Tanner of the of School Uniforms Utah Lighthouse Ministry:

Again in privatization examples contrast to the new LDS statement, it is gandhi movie not true that no eyewitness account of the translation survives. Smiths secretary Warren Parrish wrote in an 1838 letter in the Painesville Republican: I have set (sic) by privatization examples his side and penned down the Egyptian hieroglyphicks (sic) as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration from heaven. Smiths divine inspiration was not, however, divorced from a direct attempt to translate the characters of the Egyptian papyrus, as is clear from operating surviving manuscript pages of the evolving text of the Book of Abraham. These pages, unmentioned in the new LDS church posting, were published in 1966 in microfilm reproductions and in transcription by Jerald Tanner as Joseph Smiths Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar, Salt Lake City, Utah Lighthouse Ministry. These microfilm pages are the smoking gun evidence that resolves the history of the Book of Abraham translation process. In his introduction to the volume, Jerald Tanner records that his Modern Microfilm Co. was contacted in the early part of 1965 by a student at the Brigham Young University who had a typed copy of the Egyptian Alphabet hand copies, and that later in the year another man loaned us a microfilm of the original document. The microfilm reproductions found in the Tanner volume were printed from masters produced in the early part of 1966, the same year that the Tanner volume was published. Privatization Examples. The dates of operating software, 1965-1966 are significant, because the microfilm edition contains not only the Egyptian Alphabet, but the evolving manuscript pages for the future Book of Abraham as well. These pages contain copies of specific Egyptian text from the Breathing Permit of Hor, column 2. That section of the papyrus was not reproduced in the Book of privatization examples, Abraham or any other publication until the rediscovery of the warhol techniques Smith papyri in privatization examples New York in hubris defined 1967 and the publication of sepia photographs in privatization examples The Improvement Era in January and February of 1968. The copies made in 1965 and 1966, and the 1966 publication by Tanner, cannot then be forgeries since no forger could have had the unknown papyrus as a model to copy. Andy Techniques. The equation of the privatization Book of Abraham and the Breathing Permit of Hor is thus undeniable, and the source of Smiths nineteenth century composition is settled.

Period. The Tanner volume that first published these manuscripts is cumbersome to use as it lacks running pagination, but relevant manuscript pages are lettered J through M, with a second series labeled out of In Favor Uniforms Essay, order S, R, Q, N, P and O. Exactly like the privatization Alphabet and software Grammar, the pages include copies of Egyptian script on the left corresponding to lengthy English on the right. But in these texts, the English is the text of the Book of Abraham as it was being modified and would be published, with obvious deletions and revisions in the handwritten English text. Also unlike the examples Alphabet and Grammar hand copies, the Egyptian script on most of these sheets is immediately clear and readily translated by modern Egyptologists. Without question, the translation efforts by Smith and his scribes were based directly on Smiths Egyptian papyri. After the of School Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the Egyptian artifacts remained behind. Joseph Smiths family sold the papyri and the mummies in 1856. Privatization Examples. The papyri were divided up and In Favor Uniforms Essay sold to various parties; historians believe that most were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Ten papyrus fragments once in Joseph Smiths possession ended up in the Metropolitan Museum of privatization, Art in In Favor of School Essay New York City. Privatization. In 1967, the museum transferred these fragments to the Church, which subsequently published them in the Churchs magazine, the of School Improvement Era. The discovery of the papyrus fragments renewed debate about privatization, Joseph Smiths translation.

The fragments included one vignette, or illustration, that appears in parent the book of Abraham as facsimile 1. Long before the fragments were published by the Church, some Egyptologists had said that Joseph Smiths explanations of the various elements of privatization examples, these facsimiles did not match their own interpretations of these drawings. Joseph Smith had published the facsimiles as freestanding drawings, cut off from the business hieroglyphs or hieratic characters that originally surrounded the vignettes. The discovery of the fragments meant that readers could now see the hieroglyphs and characters immediately surrounding the vignette that became facsimile. None of the characters on the papyrus fragments mentioned Abrahams name or any of the events recorded in the book of privatization examples, Abraham. Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of how to be a parent, Abraham, though there is privatization examples not unanimity, even among non-Mormon scholars, about the hubris defined proper interpretation of the vignettes on these fragments. Scholars have identified the papyrus fragments as parts of standard funerary texts that were deposited with mummified bodies. These fragments date to between the third century B.C.E. and the first century C.E., long after Abraham lived.

Notice the examples admission: both Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of software, Abraham. This is quite an admission, saying that Joseph Smith did not a) know Egyptian grammar; b) accurately translate the papyrus. Of course, the fragments do not have to be as old as Abraham for the book of Abraham and its illustrations to be authentic. Ancient records are often transmitted as copies or as copies of copies. The record of Abraham could have been edited or redacted by later writers much as the Book of Mormon prophet-historians Mormon and Moroni revised the writings of earlier peoples. Moreover, documents initially composed for one context can be repackaged for another context or purpose. Illustrations once connected with Abraham could have either drifted or been dislodged from their original context and reinterpreted hundreds of years later in terms of burial practices in a later period of Egyptian history. The opposite could also be true: illustrations with no clear connection to Abraham anciently could, by revelation, shed light on the life and privatization examples teachings of this prophetic figure.

Some have assumed that the hieroglyphs adjacent to and surrounding facsimile 1 must be a source for the text of the book of Abraham. In Favor Uniforms. But this claim rests on the assumption that a vignette and its adjacent text must be associated in examples meaning. In fact, it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to software be placed some distance from examples their associated commentary. Neither the Lord nor Joseph Smith explained the process of translation of the book of Abraham, but some insight can be gained from the Lords instructions to Joseph regarding translation. In April 1829, Joseph received a revelation for operating software, Oliver Cowdery that taught that both intellectual work and revelation were essential to translating sacred records.

It was necessary to privatization study it out in your mind and then seek spiritual confirmation. Records indicate that Joseph and others studied the papyri and that close observers also believed that the translation came by revelation. As John Whitmer observed, Joseph the Seer saw these Record[s] and by the revelation of In Favor Uniforms Essay, Jesus Christ could translate these records. Once more, a persons blind faith is requested. Unfortunately, as the church itself admits, There are no official Church explanations for the Abraham facsimiles besides the Prophet Joseph Smiths explanations that accompany them. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual: Religion 327 , 35.) Knowing if it is a book really written by Abraham requires great faith, as a church history manual says that, like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and privatization examples power of God. ( Church History in the Fulness of Time Student Manual Religion 341 -343, 258.) The Mormon is instructed to believe the prophet because he says hes a prophet who 1) saw God; 2) was given the Book of Mormon and Book of Abraham and translated these; and 3) received direct revelation from God (DC). The Bible never requires that we have blind faith. How To Be A Good Parent. We have evidence to make a wise decisionsuch as the bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). Privatization. To believe someone is good a prophet who translated funeral papyri as originating from the hand of Abrahamall because we study it out in our minds and seek spiritual confirmationis foolish. Could Smith be a wolf in sheeps clothing, as Jesus warned in the Sermon on privatization the Mount?

It is likely futile to assess Josephs ability to translate papyri when we now have only a fraction of the papyri he had in hubris defined his possession. Eyewitnesses spoke of a long roll or multiple rolls of papyrus. Since only fragments survive, it is likely that much of the papyri accessible to Joseph when he translated the book of Abraham is not among these fragments. Privatization. The loss of andy, a significant portion of the papyri means the privatization relationship of the papyri to the published text cannot be settled conclusively by reference to the papyri. This same claim has been made by LDS apologists, an apparent attempt to somehow get the readers to think that, maybe somehow, the crux of the in fifth business manuscripts are somewhere around. Thus, Mormons wonder if there could have been more that wasnt found. Was the papyri found in 1967 in privatization examples a New York museum the same papyri that Smith had in his possession?

BYU professor Daniel Peterson wrote: Critics have long attempted to Essay make a case against the Book of Abraham. They argue that some ancient texts do not support the book. They point to examples the fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri that we now possess and claim that since the contents of these papyri bear little obvious relationship to the book of how to good parent, Abraham, the book is a fraud; but Hugh Nibley has made an privatization exhaustive study of these claims and has shown that the papyri we now have were probably not the ones from which Joseph Smith translated the book of Abraham. ( Ensign, January 1994): 20.) Christian researcher Charles Larson challenges this claim: And there could be no question that the Metropolitan papyri were indeed none other than the ones which Joseph Smith had once purchased and operating used. The reverse sides of the paper to which they were glued contained such things as architectural drawings of a temple and maps of the Kirtland, Ohio area. (Charles M. Larson, By His Own Hand upon Papyrus (Grand Rapids, MI: Institute for Religious Research, 1992), 36. Could there have been more papyri? In his book Shaken Faith Syndrome , Michael R. Ash writes, It is vital to examples understand that we do not have all the review papyri that Joseph Smith had when he translated the Book of Abraham. Some of the papyri were burned in privatization the Chicago fire and its possible that other fragments were lost or destroyed elsewhere.

Yale-trained Eypgtologist, Dr. John Gee, believes that Joseph Smith originally had five papyrus scrollsone of which was the hydrocephalus. Of these five scrolls, only eleven fragments of gandhi review, two scrolls are extant. (p. 115) Do they really think that more documents (conveniently destroyed, no less) will help their case? And if the other parts of the papyrus were somehow destroyed in a fire or lost, why did these survive? Even though its extremely unlikely that they are right, it ought to be pointed that what we do have proves Smith to be a fraud. Consider Abraham 1:12, which reads, And it came to pass that the privatization priests laid violence upon me, that they might slay me also, as they did those virgins upon this altar; and that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.

The figures as depicted in every Book of themes in fifth business, Abraham has this representation, and Egyptologists say its not even close to what Smith claimed them to be! Referring to this passage from the LDS scripture, Ritner writes, In addition, Facsimile 1 is specifically referenced in the text of the examples Book of Abraham (1:12): that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record. That initial representation is Fig. 4 of Facsimile 1: The altar for sacrifice by the idolatrous priests, standing before the gods of Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, and the Pharaoh. Further links appear in Abraham 1:13-14, which describe the operating bedstead altar and foreign gods (actually canopic jars) in privatization examples Facsimile 1, Figs. 5-9. From these clear internal references, the LDS church is wrong to question whether the vignette/ facsimile and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning. It is simply unacceptable to argue, as the new LDS posting does, that Facsimile 1 may not be relevant since it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary. The Abraham text states clearly that the representation was not at movie review, some distance, but at the privatization commencement of how to be a parent, this record. There is only one such representation included by Smith at the commencement of the privatization Book of Abraham. If he actually knew what he was doing, surely he would have copied the correct illustration (which is keyed perfectly and repeatedly to the text). As far as John Gee, Dr. Techniques. Ritner was his teacher, and hes not impressed with Gees analysis. Dr.

Ritner wrote, With regard to the articles by my former student John Gee, I am constrained to examples note that unlike the interaction between Baer and Nibley, and the practice of gandhi, all my other Egyptology students, Gee never chose to share drafts of his publications with me to elicit scholarly criticism, so that I have encountered these only recently. It must be understood that in privatization examples these apologetic writings, Gees opinions do not necessarily reflect my own, nor the standards of Uniforms, Egyptological proof that I required at Yale or Chicago. Alternatively, Josephs study of the papyri may have led to a revelation about key events and teachings in the life of Abraham, much as he had earlier received a revelation about the privatization examples life of Moses while studying the themes business Bible. This view assumes a broader definition of the words translator and translation. According to this view, Josephs translation was not a literal rendering of the papyri as a conventional translation would be. Examples. Rather, the physical artifacts provided an occasion for meditation, reflection, and themes in fifth business revelation. They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to privatization examples Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of how to, Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to the characters on the papyri. It is obvious why the Mormon Church needs to privatization maintain the Book of Abraham as authentic. As B. H. Roberts noted: . . Movie. . if Joseph Smiths translation of the Egyptian parchment could be discredited, and proven false, then doubt would be thrown also upon the genuineness of his translation of the Book of Mormon, and thus all pretensions as a translator would be exposed and come to naught. (B.

H. Roberts, comp., Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2:138.) When it comes to Smiths translation, there is privatization examples so much wrong associated with it. Movie. Ritner stated, I want to be absolutely clear on this. There simply is no justification for the kind of interpretations that appear in facsimile one or facsimile three. They are wrong with regard to privatization the hieroglyphs, they are wrong with regard to the gender, they are wrong with regard to the understanding of what the scene actually represents and where they are used in hubris defined the body of the text. They are wrong there as well.

In short there is no historical validity for the interpretations in that book. None whatsoever. In an article he states: The text is a formal document or permit created by Isis and copied by examples Thoth to assure that the deified Hor regains the ability to breathe and function after death, with full mobility, access to offerings, and all other privileges of the software immortal gods. The implications, basic symbolism, and intent of the text are certain. There is no way that Smith was able to translate the Book of Abraham. Everything in it was made up by him. Privatization. Dr. Ritner concludes:

With the Book of Abraham now confirmed as a perhaps well-meaning, but erroneous invention by Joseph Smith, the LDS church may well devote some reflection to the status of the text. The former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of In Favor of School, Latter Day Saints, since 2001 renamed the Community of Christ, avoids this issue by examples treating the Book of Abraham as speculative writing by Smith, not as a document of historical truth. In this decision they are clearly correct. Despite its inauthenticity as a genuine historical narrative, the Book of software, Abraham remains a valuable witness to early American religious history and to the recourse to ancient texts as sources of modern religious faith and speculation. The book still has its uses and significance, but not for the ancient world of Egypt and Abraham.

Feel free to speculate all you want about missing pieces, but Smith couldnt even accurately translate what there was in front of privatization examples, him. Shouldnt this be a concern for every Latter-day Saint? The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World. A careful study of the book of hubris defined, Abraham provides a better measure of the books merits than any hypothesis that treats the text as a conventional translation. Evidence suggests that elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world and supports the claim that the book of Abraham is an authentic record. A careful study of the Book of Abraham shows that Joseph Smith did not have the ability to read Egyptian hieroglyphics. To suggest that the elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world is true, if we consider that this is nothing more than ancient funeral papyri. But to say Smith knew how to translate this is just not true at all.

It is very similar to his translation of the Book of Mormon, as pointed out by David Persuitte: Like The Book of Mormon , The Book of examples, Abraham was the product of an andy eclectic mind and examples reflects the beliefs and literature of Josephs own time. Moreover, as we shall see, recent findings about The Book of Abraham provide some rather revealing testimony about Josephs ability as a translator of unknown languages. If Smith did not know how to translate the Book of Abraham, a text that is available today, how should the Book of Mormon be perceived today? While the techniques plates of the Book of Mormon were supposedly returned to the angel Moroni, we do have some characters that supposedly were on privatization the plates. A paper with these characters was delivered to movie Dr. Anthon Lund by Martin Harris. According to Persuitte, Competent philologist have examined copies of the scrap of paper containing the examples characters, and they agree that it is not an Egyptian inscription and that it is not written in any other known script. Andy. . Examples. . . Joseph obviously would have known at the time that any scholar that Harris would show the hubris defined characters to would not be able to translate them. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the privatization Book of parent, Mormon , p. 73.)

As Marquardt points out, This places the question of how reliable his work on the Book of privatization examples, Mormon would be. The Book of Mormon is represented to have been written by the hand of a man named Mormon in a form of Egyptian. Without a working knowledge of the operating software Egyptian language Joseph Smith would have us believe that he could make a correct interpretation of an ancient text. Whatever would come from his mouth as he dictated the Book of Mormon, Egyptian Alphabet, and Book of Abraham was considered inspired. All indications are that since Smith did not really translate from an ancient language in his work on examples the Book of Abraham he could not be trusted in his earlier dictation, when he reportedly had a record written in the same basic language. How To Parent. The material he produced indicates that he had a vivid and creative imagination as the privatization dictated text to his religious documents shows. ( The Rise of gandhi, Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 408) The book of Abraham speaks disapprovingly of human sacrifice offered on an altar in Chaldea. Some victims were placed on examples the altar as sacrifices because they rejected the idols worshipped by hubris defined their leaders. Recent scholarship has found instances of such punishment dating to Abrahams time.

People who challenged the standing religious order, either in Egypt or in the regions over which it had influence (such as Canaan), could and did suffer execution for their offenses. The conflict over the religion of examples, Pharaoh, as described in Abraham 1:1112, is an example of punishment now known to have been meted out during the Abrahamic era. Just because human sacrifice should be considered wrong, certainly from a biblical worldview, does not mean that Smiths translation is even worth considering. The book of Abraham contains other details that are consistent with modern discoveries about the ancient world. The book speaks of the plain of Olishem, a name not mentioned in the Bible. An ancient inscription, not discovered and translated until the business 20th century, mentions a town called Ulisum, located in northwestern Syria.

Further, Abraham 3:2223 is written in privatization a poetic structure more characteristic of Near Eastern languages than early American writing style. Abraham 3:22-23 has nothing to do with the software Near East. It borrows an idea found in Jeremiah 1:5 (Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born). Contrary to the Bible and privatization the Book of Mormon, the Book of Abraham advocates an movie review ex materia creation (out of already exiting materials). Joseph Smiths explanations of the facsimiles of the book of Abraham contain additional earmarks of the privatization ancient world. How To Be A Good. Facsimile 1 and Abraham 1:17 mention the idolatrous god Elkenah. Elkanah is plagiarized from the Bible (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Chronicles 6:23-27, 34-38) and is not unique to the Book of Abraham. Privatization. Another example of plagiarism from the pen of Joseph Smith. This deity is not mentioned in the Bible, yet modern scholars have identified it as being among the gods worshiped by ancient Mesopotamians. Sounds impressive until we understand that the In Favor modern scholars are all LDS. The footnote to this sentence reads:

Kevin L. Barney, On Elkenah as Canaanite El, Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 1 (2010): 2235, available at; John Gee and Stephen D. Ricks, Historical Plausibility: The Historicity of the Book of Abraham as a Case Study, in Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2001), 75. Noticeably missing is any non-LDS Egyptologist agreeing with the LDS interpretation. Joseph Smith represented the four figures in figure 6 of privatization examples, facsimile 2 as this earth in its four quarters. A similar interpretation has been argued by in fifth business scholars who study identical figures in other ancient Egyptian texts. Facsimile 1 contains a crocodile deity swimming in what Joseph Smith called the firmament over our heads. This interpretation makes sense in light of scholarship that identifies Egyptian conceptions of heaven with a heavenly ocean. The sources, again, are all LDS.

No Egyptologist supports such a view. The book of Abraham is examples consistent with various details found in In Favor of School Uniforms nonbiblical stories about Abraham that circulated in the ancient world around the examples time the papyri were likely created. In the book of Abraham, God teaches Abraham about the sun, the hubris defined moon, and the stars. I show these things unto thee before ye go into Egypt, the Lord says, that ye may declare all these words. Ancient texts repeatedly refer to Abraham instructing the Egyptians in privatization knowledge of the heavens. Themes Business. For example, Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in the second century B.C.E., wrote that Abraham taught astronomy and privatization examples other sciences to the Egyptian priests. A third-century papyrus from an In Favor of School Uniforms Egyptian temple library connects Abraham with an illustration similar to privatization facsimile 1 in the book of Abraham. A later Egyptian text, discovered in the 20th century, tells how the Pharaoh tried to sacrifice Abraham, only to be foiled when Abraham was delivered by an angel. Movie Review. Later, according to this text, Abraham taught members of the Pharaohs court through astronomy.

All these details are found in the book of privatization examples, Abraham. Other details in the book of Abraham are found in ancient traditions located across the operating software Near East. These include Terah, Abrahams father, being an idolator; a famine striking Abrahams homeland; Abrahams familiarity with Egyptian idols; and Abrahams being younger than 75 years old when he left Haran, as the biblical account states. Some of these extrabiblical elements were available in apocryphal books or biblical commentaries in Joseph Smiths lifetime, but others were confined to examples nonbiblical traditions inaccessible or unknown to 19th-century Americans. Is it possible that a later writer (Smith) included this information that he took from the Bible? For instance, Joshua 24:2 said that Terah served other gods and therefore was an operating idolater. Smith was able to copy this into his translation. In fact, the translator (Joseph Smith) is able to use any information he wants while adding additional details and make it look like he knew what he was talking about. The veracity and value of the book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the books translation and examples historicity. Of School. The books status as scripture lies in the eternal truths it teaches and the powerful spirit it conveys. The book of Abraham imparts profound truths about the nature of privatization examples, God, His relationship to us as His children, and how to the purpose of this mortal life.

The truth of the book of Abraham is ultimately found through careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit. Once more, were left with the faith card. As Robert Ritner pointed out in his A Response to Translation. . . of the Book of Abraham,' Such a declaration [that the veracity of the Book of Abraham is to be found in privatization examples prayer] may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Hubris Defined. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by privatization examples name, nor are there reasons for operating software, rejecting the Book of examples, Abraham.

Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of hubris defined, apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. Everyone is free to believe that Joseph Smith had the ability to translate from the papyri There is, however, absolutely no veracity and value of the privatization book of Abraham. The evidence points against the claim that he did so. Much is at stake here for the LDS Church and her apologists. If Smith did not have the academic ability to properly translate a common piece of Egyptian funerary papyrus, it would be doubtful that he had the translating ability to decipher the reformed Egyptian supposedly contained in the Book of Mormon . What Charles Larson wrote in 1985 is true still today: The message coming from LDS spokesmen today appears to themes be more and more one of examples, accommodation: If facts fail to justify faith (what one wishes to believe), then faith should overrule facts . This sort of thinking is be a parent evasive, and must be set aside if any real reckoning with the facts is to examples take place. ( By His Own Hands Upon Papyrus , 169, 171) The discovery of the papyri that Smith used for techniques, the Book of privatization examples, Abraham puts serious doubt on operating software Smiths translating ability and his claim to being a prophet. As Larson puts it, Since the Joseph Smith Papyri have been identified with absolute certainty as prayers to pagan Egyptian gods, it is inconceivable, given Gods holy nature and character as revealed throughout the Bible, that He would associate Himself or His revelation in any way with these pagan religious documents. Privatization Examples. Regardless of which of the above views of the Book of themes in fifth, Abraham one holds, it is surely inconceivable that the God of the Bible would compromise his exclusivity as the one, true God by co-mingling His revelation with the idolatrous pagan teachings and examples rites of Egypt as expressed in the Joseph Smith Papyri. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 166) I agree with Sandra Tanner of Utah Lighthouse Ministry when she states, It is time for the LDS Church to decanonize the Book of Abraham and admit that it is a product of operating, Joseph Smiths imagination. ( Salt Lake City Messenger , October 2014, Issue 123) Come clean now.

The sooner, the better. For more information on this topic, we highly recommend checking this article out. In addition, see the privatization examples DVD titled The Lost Book of Abraham, which can be viewed for free here. (Highly recommended.) The article by Robert Ritner is also worth looking at here. For an excellent rebuttal to arguments made by in fifth the LDS apologetic group FAIR, go here. Books that discuss this topic include:

For more responses to the Gospel Topics Essays, click here.

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Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, and DADA essay. Symbolism has widely been used as a means of representation of gender roles, which have become critical in privatization, the modern day society. This has especially been done with regard to enhancing expression of feminine and masculine nude elements found in parent, the common layman societal view. Privatization! This has ultimately resulted in the enhancement and establishment of female and male nude tendencies that are currently used in the definition of human perceptions concerning the same (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 23). The concept essentially takes into account the phenomenal differences that exist among their midst. An expression of symbolism with regard to nudity can be seen in the bath water vase depicting Pelops and Hippodameia on a Chariot in which there is how to good parent a picture of privatization examples a nude youth accompanied by a woman who is draped in be a good parent, cloth (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Art”). This serves to bring out symbolic expression of erotic association in examples, the enhancement of male-female relationships. Fauvism is an art movement, which was started back in 1905, and it emphasized on the expression of art forms through the discreet of rare unnatural colors combined into simple forms. In Favor Of School Uniforms Essay! The utilization of numerous colors in this manner gives the work of art a different expression especially when the combinations used are non-standard formulas. This is evident in Henri Matisse’s painting in his work “Blue nude” in which a woman lies down on the ground while emphasis is put on privatization examples her body features (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 28).

The color combination shows a mixture of blue, green, white and orange among others. These colors have been placed in the background in a bid to make the woman’s body look more prominent. Similarly, in Kees van Dongen’s painting “the woman with large hat”, the color combination used projects on the woman’s breast features as opposed to the hat like the title suggests (Tom and review Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 35). This further serves to emphasize more on privatization the woman’s beauty. Cubism essentially refers to an artistic movement which begun in the French and has characteristics of geometry explained in terms of planes. It is essentially an avant-garde art movement that whose pioneers are Gorge Braque and Pablo Picasso.

In addition, other pioneers who contributed to this discovery were Delaunay and Le Fauconnier. These pioneers essentially led to andy warhol techniques the start of the privatization examples revolution period concerning the western painting and sculptural representations, and specifically European style of art. It involves portraying two-dimensional art forms in andy techniques, an artistic format that gives them three-dimensional form (Wood and Harrison, “Art in privatization examples, Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 92). This type of art received accolade from many artists in the global scene. Picasso, for instance, combines visual and tactile perceptions into a single mode, he understands the fact that the picture is not necessarily a transposition of the portrayed diagram but it essentially encompasses elements of sense, idea that contribute to enhancement of its total image (Wood and Essay Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 185). There are many instrumental examples that serve to support this fundamental view. A good example would be Edgar Degas’ painting ‘the woman in birth’ which portrays a nude woman bathing in an old setting as she bends over showing her back (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 33).

The paint serves to bring out a different aspect of examples nudity in balancing gender roles in the fact that there is how to be a good parent no explicit depiction of women in a disrespectful manner. The fact that bathing is a private affair serves to portray visible elements as well as tactile elements. The viewer of the picture gets the feeling of what is actually going on in the background from privatization examples, a sensual approach. This positive depiction serves to cement the impending relationships between traditional feminine and masculine derived roles. Another example of is Pablo Picasso’s ‘Blue nude’, which shows a woman sitting her with legs crossing as she leans on her elbow by operating software placing one of her elbows on her knees (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 37). This picture portrays a woman under some form of examples distress and she is barely trying to let out her emotions in order to lay matters to operating software rest. This shows the manner in which women are essentially isolated from their personal selves by privatization examples their significant others; in this case, it is the men. It therefore portrays an imbalance in of School Uniforms Essay, the balance of societal roles delegated to women against privatization, those of their fellow men. Futurism is an artistic phenomenon that started among the Italian artists who tried to express the new views into the field of art through the projection of artistic views to represent the critically valuable future. The founder of this movement was Filippo Tommaso who fundamentally expounded deliberate art forms that strive to inculcate a futuristic component into a piece of art in his self-proclaimed manifesto.

In his manifesto, he sought to oppose past sentiments associated with art forms and hence fronted for of School Uniforms Essay the transgression to modernity (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 108). This was essentially an enthusiastic venture that sought to incorporate modern day technology into the scene of art and encapsulate them into a futuristic component. There are various nude art forms, which have been produced in contemporary art. The fundamental belief in futurism is the fact that objects begin to be viewed from a different viewpoint, which is devoid of the association with prevailing beliefs, for examples instance, religious beliefs regarding the morality of nude artistry forms. Operating Software! In Servini Gino’s work of art “La Danse du Pan Pan au Monico”, there are images have been idolized in abstract forms such that to the common believer this is meant to spark a different view of the aspect of privatization nudity (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 39). In as much as nudity is ordinarily seen as an explicit content material, in certain cases there is a meaningful additional element that can be derived from its association. In this work of art, it appears as some form of confusion is going on in the crowd in movie review, which some imagery elements of women can be deduced. Privatization! The artist has entirely struggled to operating make the components less explicit by super imposing the nude images onto one another using different colors. Dada is a form of privatization art that has been greatly subject to a lot of controversial sentiments for a long time now. This form of art that silently flourished in the many western block and European block countries.

The initial spirit towards its formulation was to emulate the spirit of resistance practiced towards supporters of the contemporary art world. The ideology of Dadaism was initially fronted by critics to the supporters of the contemporary art presentations that pursue the operating recognition of individual input into a specific art genre. The contenders of the ‘theory of the Avant-Garde’ essentially inform the spirit of Dadaism (Wood and Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”, 112). Privatization! This puts more emphasis on a movement’s influence on warhol techniques a single work of art. Privatization! This therefore provides a mode of reaction to the works created by upcoming and influential artists found in the art environment.

The main aim is to create a method of categorizing produced forms of art by fundamentally receiving them after critical review into the movement. The most critical and renowned supporter of the Avant-Garde system, its pursuits and beliefs was Marcel Duchamp even thought he was finally ousted from their helm. In his work ‘ Etant donnes’, which was incidentally his among his last works of art (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 105). In this art form, there is warhol techniques a naked body of privatization examples a woman lying in the mouth of a cave while holding a lamp. The art form displays the woman’s sexual organs among other minute details (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 107).

This work of art essentially led to major criticism from Duchamp’s contenders. Andy Warhol! The work essentially promotes the privatization examples idea of women as sexual objects. In the background there appears to be a wilderness setting and a small stream passing sideways to which the human is lying (Wood and good Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 93). This is privatization examples because in the picture, the woman is virtually holding a lighting lamp and andy it appears as if there is anticipation of sexual activity. It therefore relegates the woman’s role to that of conducting household duties, and pleasing the men in fulfilling their sexual appetites. These modernists are essentially progressive in the elemental expression of gender roles, which define the critical roles assigned to privatization examples feminine and masculine personalities. Their achievement can be attributed to operating software the fundamental achievement in constructing desired personalities, which are embedded in privatization examples, the categorical affiliations of different genders in the common society. The virtue of establishing a typical description of existing gender roles in movie review, the current existing societal frameworks concerning two-dimensional and three-dimensional art forms is paramount. The emphasis on nudity through erotic art for privatization examples instance serves to enhance the appreciation of sensational tendencies associated which sexual affiliations (Wood and Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”,98). 2. Graphic Design and Technology. Color lithography has undergone significant evolution from the previous primitive forms to the modern digital lithographic forms common in many establishments.

This transformation from the previous rudimentary forms has seen the enhancement of software new art forms in the modern day society (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 109). The art started in the primal days when painting of animal art forms was the order of the day. For instance, some of the earliest art designs found in the Greek were essentially molded by hand. This was the classical art are in which bronze formed an important part of most art forms. However, there were attempts to make some form of decorations on the rudimentary art forms. Painted art form took fore front for decorating majority of the privatization objects (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Arts: Western Art,” 44 ) . Of School Uniforms! The classical period gave progressively led to the transfer of art skills to into the western culture to the point it became a major area of privatization examples interest giving birth and emancipation of western art. In Rogier van der Weyden’s painting done in 1480 in which he paints a virgin figure and captures the moment at that time by covering aspects of the landscape ultimately giving a feeling of care, color and brilliance (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of of School Uniforms Fine Arts: Western Art,” 74). Examples! This signifies the hubris defined progression from rudimentary forms of art to modern day art expression of objects capturing the impending moments.

The practice was then spread through the privatization examples use of books, religion as seen in review, the Quran, calligraphy, cartographical maps, playing cards for gambling, in German suits, the Byzantine art of the Roman Writing, Miniature art, Asian art forms, African art, communication and ultimately the modern day communication technology forms of graphic art and design. Dadaism as a movement has been the most critical in changing the outset of the twenty-century art in that its supporters have played such a significant role. For instance, a prominent figure in this scene is Marcel Duchamp. In Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase”, he strives to bring out different aspects of human movement as they descend the privatization examples stairs (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 58). The title itself if very controversial in that it portrays a different element of the Essay picture, which an on looker can barely achieve without significant interpretation.

This art received significant criticism from the art analysts due to the message of irony it carries with it. In his cubist paint version, “The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors” the same controversy is derived. This becomes the driving force in the formation of fundamentally different art views from the contemporary world. The famous ‘Monalisa’ portrait received was ardently used to change the outset of art during criticism era of the 1890s (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and privatization examples Modernity”, 60). The “Le lire” by Arthur Sapeck depicts the image of Monalisa smoking a pipe with smoking blowing upwards.

This is fundamentally against the promotion of the andy warhol techniques contemporary art forms of the 1890s period (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 212). Another instance is seen in examples, Marcel Duchamp’s ‘the fountain.’ This is themes in fifth business essentially a print picture hence serves to promote print art forms as opposed to privatization examples contemporary organic art. This helped the artists to develop new art forms through the progressive acquiring of new art skills from contemporary art versions. This essentially came through the aspect of andy cross-cultural affiliations in those days when exploration was a major activity among the privatization examples affluent society (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 88). Good Parent! Hence, the expression of different cultural backgrounds served to develop and privatization nurture these artistic skills into critical components of the existing society. In developing democratic forms of art, the artists have gone through encountered barrier points that need to be subjectively addressed leading to a change of prospects and artistic pursuits through enhanced of the technological platform. As visible in the 1890s, a new wave of In Favor of School Uniforms Essay influence began to set into the literal art scene (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 63).

This was the periods when scientific revolution began to set in through the enhancement of science led inventions, which were typical for the industrial period. Modern artists have formed numerous affiliations opposing the fundamental continuation of primitive art forms or old art forms, which deserve to privatization examples be eliminated from the official art scene. These is very evident from the concept of the various existing movements found in the contemporary world, for In Favor of School Uniforms instance, the associations with Dadaism who are well renowned in their continued efforts to denounce the existence of old forms of art. The main aim is to oppose conventional art forms that have already undergone the fundamental test of time by submitting them to various review mechanisms meant to establish their relevancy with regard to new provisions (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 65). This leads to the creation of new definitions of art, which may not necessarily fit, into the commonly known art forms. For instance, one may consider the description of silence as a qualifying form of art even though critics may find this notion somewhat misplaced. Futurism is examples also strongly associated with anti-art sentiments proclaimed by nonconforming modernist views.

Among the andy warhol techniques most radical attacks on traditional art were instances provided by Dadaism followers. The most phenomenal was by Marcel Duchamp in examples, his modification of the prestigious ‘Monalisa’ portrait (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 93). Here he adds a moustache and beard on Monalisa’s chin. This ultimately gives the portrait a masculine touch, which fundamentally changes the context of the portrait. Andy! The message intended is that it now time for newer forms of privatization art to take the scene. Techniques! Another controversial of examples Marcel Duchamp’s works is the depiction of the urinal as ‘the fountain.’ This serves to andy negate the examples natural instinct with regard to real definition of the fountain (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99). The firm stand taken by the critics in the division of good art forms into several categories further serves to strengthen these facts. Privatization Examples! For instance, the reference of old art forms as classical art as opposed to modern art forms. Another anti-art protest is the hubris defined depiction of the ‘Monalisa’ portrait with a smoking pipe by Arthur Sapeck (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 98). This was shown in an exhibition, which was christened ‘the incoherents.’ This serves to portray the level of defiance shown by these artists towards the continuation of the reputation of medieval art forms.

There attacks were mostly motivated by the opposition of different ideals to which most of the artists belonged. For instance, two philosophers, Ernest Mach and Feud Sigmund argued on the application of the mind’s approach towards the interpretation of privatization certain events. This ultimately determines the warhol subject of a specific topical matter or concern. This led to the development of positivism view, which determined the relationship between external variables, reality component, and the individual (Galenson, “Concepts and examples Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99). The emphasis placed on the mind ability and freedom to discern the in fifth business body’s surrounding and other happenings led to these developments. The anti-art led to the emancipation of new art forms that eventually led to privatization examples the marketing idea of new forms of art. The platform of business art was changed from that of a traditional approach of mere appreciation to the incorporation of privatization business approaches. The theory of modernism slowly transformed and led to the adoption of the pop culture. This came after the First World War. The new pop culture influence on art led to the emancipation of warhol techniques digitized forms of art compared to traditional organic forms (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 73). Art became like a new for society to privatization address its social problems, which subsequently led to the commercialization of art forms.

This transition caused led to the enhancement of self-awareness virtues among the human race. With time, a new culture was being formed and private art practice became the norm through the teaching of art in various academic institutions. Mass production became the new element with the production of numerous forms of art through digitization technologies (Tom and software Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 87). Privatization! This led to the increased utilization of marketing strategies through utilization of mass media. As time went, art became revolutionized and themes it adopted other enhanced forms according to the market.

These included visual art forms and performing arts.

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About Me My name is . I was born and raised in Queens, New York. Movie Review? Currently I am a full time college student at La . Guardia Community College. My major is Criminal Justice. I am planning on transferring to John Jay of examples Criminal Justice after I earn my 45 college credits in hubris defined order to join the privatization examples, New York Police Department Cadet , my GPA is hubris defined also good enough to be qualified on John Jay. I am currently a volunteer for New York Police Department Auxiliary. Examples? Since I was a kid I used. Boxing , Constable , Crime 1116 Words | 3 Pages. ? An essay about software a social network Facebook is one of the most important social network today, and one of the examples, most popular sites . In Favor Of School Uniforms? from the internet. Social network sites (SNSs) were always popular and people seemed to privatization examples be attracted by the idea of creating a profile where they can put information about them and keep in contact with their friends, or even look for dates, jobs and many others. But with Facebook, the idea of a social network site became much more important, because it grew so big that.

A Great Way to Care , Facebook , Internet 1639 Words | 5 Pages. ? Essay Option #2 If you don't want to in fifth business take school seriously, then I guess Ill look forward to seeing you working your shift at privatization McDonalds . when I stop by for the fries. This is of School Essay what my mom told me when I was an eighth grader. My parents are very accomplished people; my mother is a registered nurse and my father is privatization examples a lawyer. So her words cut deep and hit me where it hurt.

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Essay on Humidity: Top 5 Essays on Humidity| Climatology | Geography. Here is a compilation of privatization examples essays on Humidity for Class 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on In Favor of School Uniforms Essay, Humidity especially written for school students. Essay on the Meaning of Humidity Essay on the Formation of Humidity Essay on the Measurement of Humidity Essay on the Influence of Humidity on Crops Essay on Humid Cities on Earth. Humidity of the examples, air refers to the content of water vapour present in the air at a particular time and place. On the other hand, water vapour is the gaseous form of water. Hubris Defined. Water vapour represents 2 per cent of the total composition of the atmosphere but this percentage varies both spatially and temporally as it ranges from privatization, zero to 5 per cent. Nearly 50 per cent of the total atmospheric vapour is concentrated in the lower at­mosphere upto the height of 2000 metres. It may be mentioned that water occurs in three states viz. as solid (e.g., ice, snow and frost), as liquid (e.g., water), and in gaseous form (e.g., vapour). The presence of in fifth business water vapour in the atmosphere is a vital factor for weather conditions of a particular region. The nature and amount of precipitation, the amount of loss of examples heat through radiation from the hubris defined, earths surface, surface tempera­ture, latent heat of the atmosphere, stability and privatization examples insta­bility of air masses etc. depend on the amount of water vapour present in the atmosphere.

The atmospheric water vapour is warhol, derived through evaporation of water from oceans and seas, terrestrial lakes, land water bodies (tanks, ponds), rivers etc. The process of transformation of liquid (water) into gaseous form is called evaporation. The amount and intensity of evaporation depend on aridity, tem­perature and velocity of winds. Examples. The higher the aridity, temperature and velocity of winds, the higher the rate and amount of evaporation because dry air with high temperature is capable of retaining more moisture (vapour) as dry air requires more time and moisture to become saturated. A stable air becomes saturated soon because there is no transfer of moisture while unstable air attains saturation quite late because there is much transfer of moisture.

There is more evaporation from the oceans than from the lands. There is maximum evaporation from the lands between 10N and 10S latitudes whereas maximum evaporation occurs from the oceans between 10-20 latitudes in both the hemi­spheres. The process of conversion of vapour into liquid (water) and techniques solid form (ice, snow, frost) is called condensation. It is apparent that evaporation and con­densation are opposite processes wherein the former involves conversion of liquid (water) into gaseous form (water vapour) while the latter refers to conver­sion of water vapour into liquid or solid form. Essay # 2. Formation of Humidity : Energy in the form of heat is privatization, required for the conversion of water into gaseous form (water vapour).

Heat energy is generally measured in the unit of calo­rie, 79 calories are required to convert one gram of ice into water whereas 607 calories are needed for the conversion of one gram of water into water vapour. It is hubris defined, apparent that the potential energy of water is more than ice and that of vapour is more than water. This hidden amount of heat in water vapour is examples, called latent heat. Hubris Defined. In other words, the amount of heat spent during the process of evaporation is never lost rather it is always associated with water vapour. There are several evidences which demonstrate the use of heat energy at the time of evaporation. (i) one feels cooling effect when one sits before fan or in shady open air after sweating in privatization examples summer months because the sweats are evaporated, (ii) there is cooling effect when drops of andy warhol sprit are kept on examples, the palm of human hand because sprit is evaporated etc. On the other hand, heat energy is released at the time of software condensation (conver­sion of vapour into privatization examples, liquid or solid form). This energy, released after condensation, is called latent heat of condensation. Essay # 3. Measurement of Humidity : Humidity refers to the content of water vapour present in operating the air in gaseous form at a particular time and place.

The atmospheric humidity is obtained through various processes of evaporation from the land and water surfaces of the earth. The atmospheric humidity is of vital climatic significance because different forms of precipitation (dew, fog, rainfall, frost, snowfall, hailstorm etc.), atmospheric storms (cyclones) and turbulence etc. depend on hu­midity. Examples. The atmospheric humidity is expressed in a number of ways e.g., absolute humidity, specific hu­midity, relative humidity etc. The moisture content (humidity) of the air is measured in andy techniques grain per cubic foot or in gram per cubic centimetre. Evaporation is the main mechanism through which water is converted into humidity (vapour).

Since temperature and evaporation are directly positively related (evaporation increases with increasing tem­perature) and hence humidity and temperature are also directly positively related. The moisture retaining ca­pacity or humidity capacity refers to the capacity of an air of certain volume at certain temperature to privatization examples, retain maximum amount of moisture content. Hubris Defined. Humidity ca­pacity is directly positively related with temperature i.e., higher the temperature, higher the humidity capac­ity and lower the temperature, lesser the humidity capacity. In other words, as air temperature increases, humidity also increases and vice-versa. For example, the humidity capacity of an air having the examples, volume of one cubic foot and temperature of in fifth 30F is privatization, 1.9 grain whereas it becomes 2.9 grain when temperature be­comes 40F (an increase of 10F). It may be pointed out that the ratio of increase of humidity capacity also increases with increasing temperature (Table 36.1). For example, the net increase of humidity capacity from 30F to 40F is one grain while it becomes 5 grain from 90F to 100F (table 36.1). How To. Similarly, humidity capac­ity becomes higher during summer months than during winter months and during daytime than nights. The extent of land and water and wind velocity also influ­ence humidity capacity. Oceanic and coastal areas record higher humidity capacity of air than the remote areas of the continents.

Humidity capacity decreases from equator pole-ward. The air having moisture con­tent equal to its humidity capacity is called saturated air. The total weight of examples moisture content (water vapour) per volume of air at definite temperature is called absolute humidity. Generally, absolute humid­ity does not change with increase or decrease of andy techniques tem­perature, if no additional vapour is added through additional evaporation, but it changes with contraction (after descent) or expansion (on ascent) of air. The absolute humidity decreases from equator towards the poles and from oceans to the continents.

The possibil­ity of precipitation largely depends on absolute humid­ity. Specific humidity is defined as the examples, mass of water vapour in grams contained in a kilogram of air and it represents the actual quantity of moisture present in a definite air. Specific humidity is seldom affected by changes in air pressure or air temperature because it is measured in the units of weight (grams). It is directly proportional to vapour pressure, which is the partial pressure exerted by water vapour in the air and is independent of other gases, and is inversely proportional to andy warhol, air pressure. Specific humidity de­creases from equator pole-ward. For example, extremely cold and dry air over arctic region during winter generally has specific humidity of privatization examples 0.2 gram per gandhi movie, kilo­gram of air while it becomes as high as 18 grams per kilogram of extremely warm and moist air over equa­torial regions. In a real sense, specific humidity is privatization examples, a geographers yardstick of in fifth business a basic natural resource- water-to is applied from equatorial to Polar Regions. It is a measure of the quantity of water that can be extracted from the atmosphere as precipitation. iv. Relative Humidity:

Relative humidity is defined as a ratio of the amount of water vapour actually present in the air having definite volume and temperature (i.e., absolute humidity) to the maximum amount the privatization examples, air can hold (i.e., humidity capacity). In other words, relative hu­midity is the proportion of absolute humidity of an air of in fifth business definite volume at a given temperature to the humid­ity capacity of that air. Relative humidity is generally expressed as percentage. For example, if the humidity capacity and absolute humidity of an air having tem­perature of 20C are 8 grains and 4 grains per cubic foot respectively, then the examples, relative humidity will be as follows: Relative humidity = Absolute humidity/Humidity capacity ? 100. 4/8 x 100 = 50% or 1/2 or 1:2. There is inverse relationship between air temperature and relative humidity i.e., relative humidity decreases with increasing temperature while it increases with decreasing temperature (table 36.2). When the humidity capacity and absolute hu­midity of the air are the same, the air is said to techniques, be saturated and the relative humidity becomes 100 per cent. Essay # 4. Influence of Humidity on Crops : Relative humidity directly influences water relations of privatization examples plant and indirectly affects leaf growth, photosynthesis, pollination, occurrence of review diseases and finally economic yield. Dryness of atmosphere, as represented by saturation deficit (100-RH), reduces dry matter production through stomatal control and leaf water potential. Leaf growth not only examples depends on synthetic activities resulting from biochemical process but also upon physical process of cell enlargement.

Cell enlargement occurs as a result of turgor pressure developed within the Essay, cells. Turgor pressure is high under RH due to less transpiration. Thus, leaf enlargement is high in humid areas. Photosynthesis is indirectly affected by RH. When RH is low, transpiration increases causing water deficits in plant. Water deficits cause partial or full closure of examples stomata and increase mesophyll resistance, blocking entry of carbon dioxide. Moderately low air humidity is favourable for seed set in hubris defined many crops, provided soil moisture supply is adequate. For example, seed set in examples wheat was high at operating software, 60 per cent RH compared to 80 percent when water availability in the soil was not limiting. At high RH, pollen may not be dispersed from the anthers. Incidence of insect pests and diseases is high under high humidity conditions.

High RH favours easy germination of fungal spores on plant leaves. Examples. Blight diseases of potato and tea spread more rapidly under humid conditions. Several insects such as aphids and jassids thrive better under moist conditions. Very high or very low RH is not conducive for high grain yield. Under high humidity, RH is negatively correlated with grain yield of maize and wheat. It can be attributed to adverse effect of RH on pollination and high incidence of pests.

On the contrary, increase in of School Uniforms RH during panicle initiation to maturity increased grain yield of sorghum under low humidity conditions due to favourable influence of RH on water relations of plants and photosynthesis. With similar amount of solar radiation, crops that are grown with irrigation gives less yield compared to privatization, those grown with equal amount of water as rainfall. This is because the dry atmosphere, which is little affected by irrigation, independently suppresses the andy warhol techniques, growth of crops. Very high relative humidity leads to: i. Reduced evapotranspiration. ii. Privatization. Increased heat load of plants. iii. Stomatal closure. iv.

Reduced CO 2 uptake. v. Reduced transpiration influences translocation of food materials and nutrients. vi. Moderately high RH of 60-70% is hubris defined, beneficial. vii.

Low RH increases the evapotranspiration. Essay # 5. Humid Cities on privatization, Earth: Most humid cities on how to be a parent, earth are, generally, located closer to equator, near coastal regions. Cities in south and Southeast Asia are among the most humid, such as Kolkata and examples those in andy Kerala in India, cities of Manila in privatization examples the Philippines and Bangkok in Thailand: these places experience extreme humidity during their rainy seasons combined with warmth giving the feel of a lukewarm sauna. Darwin, Australia experiences an extremely humid wet season from business, December to April. Privatization Examples. Shanghai (China) and Hong Kong also have an extreme humid period in their summer months. Kuala Lumpur and Singapore have very high humidity all year round because of their proximity to water bodies and themes in fifth business the equator and overcast weather; despite sunshine, perfectly clear days are rare in these locations and it is often misty. In cooler places such as Northern Tasmania, Australia etc. high humidity is experienced all year due to ocean between mainland Australia and Tasmania.

In summer, hot dry air is absorbed by this ocean and temperature rarely climbs above 35C. In USA, most humid cities, strictly in terms of privatization relative humidity are Forks and operating software Olympia and Washington. This fact may come as a surprise to many, as the climate in this region rarely exhibits discomfort usually associated with high humidity. Dew points are typically much lower on West Coast than on examples, East. Because high dew points play a more significant role than relative humidity in discomfort created during humid days, air in these western cities usually does not feel humid. Highest dew points are found in coastal Florida and Texas. The US city with lowest annual humidity is Yuma, Arizona, averaging under 50 per cent for a high and 22 per cent as a low. Next lowest humidity is Tucson, Arizona, with average high humidity of 57 per cent and a low of 26 per cent.

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