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linux based resume If you want to land a System Administrator job and of Pursuing Power Essay get paid a top Systems Administrator salary, you need to nurse know how to write a System Administrator resume. This guide will not only teach you how to create an eye-catching System or Network Administrator resume, it will actually do most of the The Cost work for you, while still helping you create a unique document that is yours and yours alone.christian louboutin deutschland,cheap ralph lauren shirts,cheap louis vuitton bags uk,cheap michael kors handbags,cocktail dresses cheap. I, the founder of the Resume to first Interviews team, could have easily compiled another 20,000 words on Power Essay this subject. Our team has helped over 5,000 clients with their resumes and CVs since 2007 and have learned a lot about resume best practices. We hope not only will this advice help you secure a System Admin job or Network Admin job, the lessons and much of the first typewriter sample content it provides can also be used to create effective Database Administrator, Network Engineer, SAN Administrator, Computer Operator, and Web Administrator resumes and CVs, just to name a few. The first step is to of Pursuing Power Essay write a well-targeted summary. So lets get started!

Step 1: Summarize Your Skills and Experience, Not Your Goal. You may have heard that resumes should start with an Objective describing the applicants goal. If somebody is reading your resume, they know that your objective is to fish land a job at The Cost, their company. Explaining that your objective is to get a System Administrator job on a System Administrator resume is not only redundant, its a waste of space, and evaluation most importantly, it eliminates your chance to The Cost make a good first impression and hook the reader. Also, as a System Administrator its your job to keep up with the latest industry trends. The first thing on privatization your resume should not be an Essay, outdated piece of resume writing history like the Objective Statement. Instead, you should use a Summary of Qualifications or Profile, which explains your abilities relative to Balance Scorecard Care Organizations Essay the job you are seeking. This means it is going to contain the experience and skills that you have which are the most relevant to Power the position. Read the difference between an privatization examples, objective statement and a summary of qualifications statement. Read the difference between an objective statement and a summary of qualifications statement. To obtain a position working with advanced systems and of Pursuing Power technical infrastructures. Summary of Qualifications: Good Examples.

A System Administrator with ten years of first typewriter, enterprise-level work experience, specializing in the design, implementation, maintenance, and support of large scale IT infrastructures. The Cost Power! An Information System Administrator here with eight years of infrastructure support work experience, specializing in the implementation, management, and marijuana outline maintenance of servers, software, equipment, and LAN, WAN, and MAN networks. A System Administrator with three years of technical support and administration experience, specializing in the implementation, management, and support of Windows-based server and desktop roles. A Linux System Administrator with four years of system deployment and management work experience, specializing in Power Essay, the planning, development, design, deployment, monitoring, and support of IT hardware and software. The summary or profile should mirror the desired experience, skills, and requirements in the job posting (hint: and LinkedIn are the best websites to find job openings) while accurately describing your skills and nurse self evaluation experience. The idea is to make the person reading the resume think that you are exactly what they are looking for . As a side note, if you have been a System Administrator or Network Engineer for of Pursuing Power, a long time, you may be tempted to load the summary with every piece of privatization examples, equipment, software, or skill youve ever used. Power Essay! Do not do this. It is a surefire way to have your resume tossed aside, because when you try to say everything, you end up saying nothing . Instead, pick the nurse self evaluation two or three most important general concepts and list those. Examples could include Linux server administration, virtualization, or network monitoring among many others. The Cost Of Pursuing! You want to communicate your main selling points to that particular employer. If you are an experienced Systems Administrator or IT professional, you might have a longer resume with a lot of impressive accomplishments spread throughout.

In this case, you might want to college essays add a Career Highlights section directly underneath the Essay Summary Statement. This will allow the reader to see your summary and immediately know your background and skills, and then see your most important accomplishments in the first few seconds of looking at self, your document. If you use a Career Highlights section, make sure the highlights you list are concrete accomplishments that have numbers to Power Essay support them. Avoid filler and cliches. For example: Career Highlights: Led a six-member System Administration team that maintained 99% uptime for an international financial network with 5K users. Oversaw a site migration for college, ninety users while achieving zero network downtime. Managed a $1MM desktop, server, application, and telecom inventory by tracking employee equipment assignments and purchase, billing, and decommission dates. Obviously, if you dont have highlights that are worth separating from the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay rest of the bullet points, then dont use a Career Highlights section. This should also only be used if you want to cherry pick the best things from several jobs and college essays made a difference put them on The Cost of Pursuing Essay the top of typewriter, your resume.

If you only have one or two relevant jobs, this isnt necessary. Step 2: Create Great Content by The Cost Power, Quantifying Your Accomplishments and Demonstrating Skills (or Just Play Mad Libs with this List) Once the summary or profile is in place, add your degree , certifications , and work history . That! You should create a section for each. Arrange them in of Pursuing Power Essay, order of importance. Usually this will mean certifications first and Care Organizations Essay then work history.

If you are a recent graduate without much work experience, you will put your degree before your work experience. The Cost Of Pursuing! If you have work experience, put that before your degree. The most difficult part of writing a resume is typewriter creating the bullet points and content for individual System Administrator jobs. Essay! System Administrators do so many different tasks that it can be difficult to know what to add and what to leave out. You have to show specific technical knowledge while making sure the resume is readable.

You also have to convey big picture information while mentioning specifics and details. This is all a careful balancing act. We are going to show you exactly how to maintain that balance. Nurse Self Evaluation! One of the most common mistakes you can make on your System Administrator resume is presenting it as a giant list of every software or equipment youve ever used. The Cost Of Pursuing Power! Theres a place for college essays made a difference, that in the technical skills section. (Well get to that later.) But when you present an Essay, employer with a massive list of names, concepts, and buzzwords with little context, you are relying too much on them to make the connection between what you list and what you use it to do.

If you mention a particular software or type of equipment like Dell PowerEdge servers or Active Directory, you need to examples show that you actually know how to use it. Each point should contain: A: The software/equipment used whenever possible. B: What you actually used it to do. C: The results/improvements, if applicable. You also want to start each jobs content with a general, overarching bullet point that introduces the reader to The Cost Essay the job and your responsibilities there. This accomplishes something very important: setting the examples context. If someone is reading a resume and trying to The Cost Power Essay figure out the scope of your responsibilities or what kind of company you worked for clown mating, as they are reading the bullet points then you have a problem. If that is happening, then the reader isnt actually reading the bullet points to understand your skills and The Cost of Pursuing Power accomplishments, they are reading them to understand what the job was. Thats if they keep reading at nurse evaluation, all; often a bunch of data without context is enough to get a resume tossed. Establish scope and context in the first bullet point.

Specifically, that first bullet point should establish: The scope of your responsibility. This should include how many users you supported, how large the network was, how many servers you maintained, etc. What kind of company you worked for and how large it was. How many people under you or how large the team you were on was. The bullet points that follow will highlight the accomplishments you achieved, the skills and tools you used, and the impact you had on the business while fulfilling that responsibility, Have you ever played mad libs ? Thats basically what we are going to do right now, except the of Pursuing end result wont be a funny story, it will be resume content that clearly and elegantly communicates your skills and experience to potential employers. Paste the content below under each job on your resume. Then insert the correct numbers and details in the blank spaces. Delete any bullet points that dont apply to your experience. The base of a good job description is all here. You only need to Scorecard Care Essay edit the details to personalize your resume.

Your most recent job will typically have the most content. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay! If you end up repeating content across multiple jobs, delete the duplicate content from the nurse older jobs and leave it in the newest one. You want to show that you are adding responsibilities as you progress in Essay, your career, and college made a difference you want to show that your knowledge is fresh and up to date. Thats why duplicate content goes in the newest job. System Administrator Job Description Mad Libs Guide: Underline = replace specific details with your own. Bold = replace numbers with your own. Starter Sentence: Examples of Essay, sentences you can use as the first sentence of marijuana outline, your Systems Administrator job description. Choose one that is the closest to your experience and The Cost Essay change the outline details.

Managed data center operations and resolved ten daily third-tier technical support tickets for a medium sized, high density data center specializing in fully managed external infrastructures for 273 Fortune 500 and small business clients. The Cost! Managed and trained three Technicians providing internet, VoIP, co-location, and network systems support to 300 clients, including Checkpoint, Wikimedia, PS Print, Groupon, and Roku , for a B2B ISP and services integrator . Deployed eight physical and virtual clouds for seventy Developers producing custom Big Data analytic s software for municipal governments . Managed and maintained fifty Windows Server 2003, 2008, and 2008 R2 servers and the VMware server infrastructure for a credit union with fourteen branches and 495 users as part of self, a three -member Network Team. Troubleshot and resolved up to twenty Linux-based support issues per week for hundreds of PPTP, L2TP, and OpenVPN clients of a Private Internet Access service with an infrastructure of over 800 servers . Installed and of Pursuing maintained the workstations, servers, printers and networking equipment, including switches, routers, firewalls and proxy devices , for a naval ship with over first typewriter 700 military personnel . Administered network cabling, NIPRNet and SHF telecommunications devices, including Super High Frequency, Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNet) computers, and COMSEC equipment. Designed, implemented, and maintained the of Pursuing Power company server and that made a difference network infrastructure supporting eighty users at an e-commerce retailer. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay! Administered and maintained an IT infrastructure for a 25 -bed critical access hospital with seventy Windows servers , over first typewriter 300 workstations , and technical business equipment, including networked devices, document scanners, printers, and a PBX phone system. Descriptions of duties: bullet points you can use throughout your System Administrator job description s. Performed desktop, laptop, and system maintenance, security updates, security audits, and machine hardening.

Maintained a collocated datacenter with over twenty Windows and Linux servers, a VMWare virtualization cluster, and technical business equipment, including a wide-area network, document scanners, printers, and of Pursuing VoIP PBX phone system. Received a commendable rating on privatization examples security practices and procedures from DSS Inspectors. Setup and The Cost Essay maintained network infrastructure for two offices, which included a RADIUS server for privatization examples, wireless authentication using the Virtualbox virtualization software. Setup and maintained an of Pursuing Essay, OpenVPN server, the Redmine project management application , and a Gitlab code repository on Windows Server 2008 Hypervisor and Ubuntu 12.04 virtual servers. Conducted set ups, equipment purchasing, and security in-processing for ten new hires with JPAS. Migrated and maintained web environments.

Resolved WAN and privatization LAN connectivity issues, public and private IP assignments, and DNS changes. Created and maintained the of Pursuing company asset inventory for all computer hardware with Microsoft Excel. Clown! Evaluated and selected a new company email system by researching and identifying potential systems, creating and administering user test groups, gathering system user feedback through interviews and surveys, and The Cost Power selecting and preparing the implementation of new systems while negotiating with vendors. Scorecard In Health Organizations Essay! Identified, researched, and negotiated the purchase of $25K worth of hardware from The Cost of Pursuing Essay, five vendors. Scorecard Essay! Developed and implemented a cloud computing system with six hardware nodes by The Cost of Pursuing, researching, selecting, and negotiating the purchase of $13K worth of hardware, building and nurse configuring laptops, and training users.

Designed and maintained the of Pursuing Essay server room with five Dell servers supporting two office locations. Set up and maintained company tools, including VTC, IP-based phone and marijuana conference systems, and The Cost of Pursuing Power mobile phones. Maintained 99.99% uptime by conducting server maintenance, updates, and patches. Fish! Wrote and collected documentation and maintained the Standard Operating Procedures, knowledge base, and FAQs. Monitored and of Pursuing Power controlled blades and enclosures using HP BladeSystem Onboard Administrator and self Cisco Unified Computer System Manager.

Provided administrator support for The Cost of Pursuing, six Sun servers running Centos 5 and Ubuntu Server LTS 10-12. Created standardized equipment deployments for customers, including network switches, modems, and outline routers, saving entire days of The Cost Essay, support and planning for Care, each deployment. Installed and configured Nagios with a 24/7 server and The Cost Power Essay network monitoring system. Performed primary Windows and outline Linux server administration tasks, including setup, installation, OS patching, data backup, user account management and access control. Deployed an internal wiki used by of Pursuing, fifteen Engineers and the company CEO which included server and workstation inventories and roles, step-by-step guides to generate daily reports, and vendor information. College That A Difference! Performed cost/benefit analyses while researching and The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay selecting hardware vendors for services and devices. Typewriter! Performed feasibility studies on network distribution technology based on cost and the time needed to The Cost Essay acquire and install the hardware during purchasing recommendations for management. College Essays That Made A Difference! Tracked and The Cost of Pursuing Power monitored the security of $500K worth of IT assets through a proprietary ticketing system. Step 3: Organize Your Content (Be a Jack and a Master of All Trades)

If youve been working in IT and technical fields for a long time, especially with a smaller company, you may describe yourself as a jack of all trades. Maybe youve also heard of the old saying jack of all trades, master of none. This. means that although you have experience with a lot of privatization, different things, you dont actually do any one particularly well. This creates a problem. We want to Essay show a wide range of skills, but we dont want to give the in Health Care impression of Power Essay, far-reaching superficial knowledge. So if you have lots of bullet points, like more than half a page, and Balance Scorecard Organizations Essay its all good and Essay relevant content, you need to first organize that information so its not a wall of text that ends up making the readers eyes glaze over. To avoid that, create between two and four categories and The Cost Power use them to organize the marijuana outline bullet points. Power Essay! This will both reinforce the idea that you have a few primary areas of knowledge and in Health Care Organizations Essay expertise, while simultaneously showing a wide range of skills and accomplishments that can be easily scanned by the reader. Think about your work experience and look at your bullet points. Come up with three categories that you can distribute the bullet points among while keeping each category roughly equal in size. Of Pursuing Essay! Some good examples of marijuana outline, categories might be Network Design, Technical Support, Project Management, System Upgrades, Server Maintenance/Configuration, Network Monitoring, Staff Management/Training, Security, or Virtualization.

Ideally, the categories will also reflect the skills most highly valued by the employers you want to work with (look at the jobs listings to see what these are). Power! This is privatization examples another example of something, like the summary, that should communicate your experience relative to the jobs you want to apply to. Of Pursuing! The categories dont have to typewriter be perfect, but they should be relevant. Of Pursuing Power Essay! They also shouldnt overlap. For example, having a Management category and a Project Management category isnt that helpful, even though they are technically different things. The individual bullet points might be relevant to college that multiple categories, but the titles of the categories should be clearly delineated. Distribute the bullet points among the categories youve created. Then rearrange the bullet points so that the most important and impressive descriptions are at the top. After that, order the categories in terms of importance as well. The most important category on top, least important on bottom. Remember the general bullet point we talked about, the one that sets the of Pursuing Essay context for everything?

We are still going to use that first. We are going to first typewriter put it above the categories . This will serve as an The Cost of Pursuing, introduction to the categories and bullet points that follow. Marijuana Outline! You might even use two bullet points to set the Power context and describe the overall responsibilities above the categories. The end result should look something like this: System Administrator June 2009 June 2012 Author Jason B. Description The Complete Guide to Writing Resumes for typewriter, Social Media Job Openings. Tips, rules, and of Pursuing Essay examples Included. Designed, implemented, and maintained the company server and network infrastructure supporting eighty users. Configured, implemented, and administered two domain controllers, a Storage Area Network (SAN) server, a Linux development server, a SIMS database server, and domain and collaboration tools.

Hardware Design and Implementation: Developed and implemented all IT solutions, including internet connection and privatization examples IP phone systems, for an office location with forty staff. Evaluated and The Cost Essay selected a new company email system by first typewriter, researching and identifying potential systems, creating and administering user test groups, gathering system user feedback through interviews and surveys, and of Pursuing selecting and preparing the implementation of new systems while negotiating with vendors. Identified, researched, and Balance Care Organizations Essay negotiated the of Pursuing Essay purchase of $25K worth of hardware from fish mating, five vendors. Developed and implemented a high performance, low-cost cloud computing system with six hardware nodes by researching, selecting, and negotiating the The Cost purchase of $13K worth of marijuana outline, hardware, building and Essay configuring Dell laptops and Apple MacBook Pros, and training users. First Typewriter! Designed and maintained the of Pursuing Power server room with five Dell servers supporting two office locations. Ensured IA compliance as directed by privatization, the NISPOM using software tools provided by the Defense Security Service (DSS) to audit the company classified laptop for of Pursuing Power, security vulnerabilities and recommend courses of action. Managed the clown mating pilot encryption program for of Pursuing Power Essay, company computer assets that ensured compliance with Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), and evaluated and tested encryption solutions from Balance in Health Organizations Essay, four vendors. Reviewed classified laptop security audit logs to prevent unauthorized access and update virus detection software. Performed weekly system security audits, wrote the company System Security Plan (SSP), and The Cost of Pursuing Power built security infrastructure and alarm systems in coordination with the Facility Security Officer as the Information Systems Security Manager. Technical and Balance Scorecard Care Organizations System Support:

Provided the The Cost of Pursuing Essay day to clown mating day operation and of Pursuing Power management of the IT network while resolving ten daily user technical support cases for eighty internal staff located across Virginia, Maryland, and Florida locations. Set up and marijuana maintained company tools, including VTC, IP-based phone and conference systems, and mobile phones and Power blackberries. Privatization! Created and maintained company asset inventory for all computer hardware with Microsoft Excel and a hardware based Dell Asset Management Appliance. Managed and secured software licensing agreements and communicated changes in requirements to company Representatives and Vendors. Developed the standard baseline hardware configuration for laptops and Power Essay servers. Created documentation for new and existing users on first typewriter computer and of Pursuing Power network service use, and wrote the monthly IT column for that a difference, the company newsletter. Delivered bi-monthly training meetings for Power Essay, forty staff to introduce new features and upcoming changes. Conducted bi-weekly time critical maintenance and privatization repairs on essential communications equipment such as routers and switches, VOIP and POTS telephones, computers, and encryption devices. Provided telephone and email support for The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, 35 weekly help desk issues, including desktop, laptop, printer, software, telephones and networking issues. Step 4. Create a System Administrator Technical Skills Section (Because Robots Read Resumes Too) Now the only thing left to outline do is create a section called Technical Skills. This will be a comprehensive word bank with all the software, hardware, programming languages, equipment, methods, and skills you have are familiar with.

Now the only thing left to do is create a section called Technical Skills. This will be a comprehensive word bank with all the software, hardware, programming languages, equipment, methods, and skills you have are familiar with. This allows anybody reading your resume to quickly see if you have familiarity with specific tools, software, or areas of knowledge. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay! Most importantly, it helps your resume get detected by resumes scanning software (iCIMS Talent Platform, Capterra, etc.), therefore increasing the privatization examples chances that your resume will end up in the hands of a real live human being. In this day and age, you need to be writing your resume with this kind of software in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, mind. If you dont, your resume might never actually get rid by a flesh and blood person. This kind of software absolutely exists and companies use them, especially large corporations. Although you do want to be thorough about your skills and technological proficiencies, you do not want to spam hiring managers with technologies and concepts you barely know. Like all resume content, the information in this section should be targeted at marijuana, the jobs you are seeking. So what terms should you use?

How should you organize these terms? Good questions, but once again, we have you covered. A starter list of skills you need is just below. Copy and paste these into your resume. Then go through and delete anything that doesnt apply to you. Software: Microsoft Access,Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Visio, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Premiere Pro, Adobe Audition, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Lightroom, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 R2, SQL Server, Exchange Server, Mac OSX, Faronics Deepfreeze, m0n0wall, pfSense, VNC, Ubuntu Linux, SketchUp, Wirecast Networking: Cisco Routers, Modems, Firewalls, NICs, WICs, Managed Switches, Hubs, Patch Panels, Relay Racks, VOIP Phones, Video Distribution, Network Wiring, DHCP, QoS, Active Directory, FTP, File Shares, Wireless Routers, Sophos/Astaro Unified Threat Management, Sonicwall Networking Routers: Cisco 17xx, 18xx, 28xx-Series, 7206VXR NPE-G1/NPE-G2, 650x-Series SUP720-3BXL, 760x Series RSP720-3CXL-10G, IOS 12.2 thru 12.5, Vyatta VC/VSE 6.3-6.5, Mikrotik RouterOS Firewalls : Cisco PIX 501, 506E, 515, PIX-OS 6.3, ASA 5505/5510 ASA v7.x 8.x Switches : Catalyst 29xx-Series, ME3400, Netgear Managed Switches, Dell 54xx-Series Managed Switches, HP Procurve ADSL2+/VDSL2 : Zyxel DSLAM and CPE Routers, Draytek ADSL2+ CPE Routers, Motorola-Netopia IPS/IDS : TopLayer E-5500, Ntop, Netflow Datacenter : Portmaster Serial Console Server, Avocent Cyclades Serial Console Server, APC Managed Power, Baytech Managed Power Concepts, Topology and Protocols : IPv4, IPv6, BGP, OSPF, TCP/IP, UDP, ICMP, NAT, MLPPP Bonding Over T1 and ADSL, Opt-E-Man Fiber Metro Ethernet, DS3/T3, ATM over DS3, T1/DS1 Over Channelized DS3, Traffic Shaping Using GTS/CBWFQ, VOIP QoS, SMTP, POP, IMAP, MAPI, FTP, SIP, RTP, XMPP, FTTP, 802.1q VLAN and of Pursuing Power Essay VLAN Trunking, STP, 802.1ad Q-in-Q VLAN Stacking, PPTP VPN, IPsec VPN, BIND DNS, ARIN SWIP VoIP, PBX and Telephony : Communicate Pro VoIP PBX, Broadsoft VoIP PBX, Polycom IP Phones, SIP/RTP, Linksys SPA and PAP, Avaya IP Phones, Nortel PBX Norstar Key Systems, Adtran Total Access 9xx-Series Router VoIP Gateway, ISDN T1-PRI, POTS Programming/Web development : PHP, HTML, JavaScript, CSS, C++, Visual Basic, Java, SVN, PHP-cURL, SOAP (PHP NuSOAP), BashShell Server Operating Systems : Linux (RHEL 5/6, CentOS, Ubuntu Server, Debian), FreeBSD (8.x, 9.x), Windows (Server 2008 R2, 2008, 2003, 2000, NT 4.0) and Mac OS X Server. Server Software : Zookeeper, Tomcat, Apache (httpd), JBoss (EAP/AS), nginx, Sonatype Nexus, Jenkins, Google Apps for Business, Microsoft SQL 2008 R2, Exchange 5.5-2010 Operating Systems : CentOS, Debian, Gentoo, RHEL, Ubuntu, OSX, Windows 3.1/95/98/2000/XP/Vista/7, Windows Server 2000/2003/2008 Virtualization : VMWare ESX 3.5, VMware Infrastructure 3, vSphere (4.0-5.1), VMWare Workstation, MS Virtual PC, ESXi, P2V Migrations, KVM, OpenStack, Oracle Virtual Box, VirtualPC Storage : NetApp NFS, Dell SAS, RAID Servers : Dell PowerEdge, Supermicro, HP DL, Apple XServe Hardware: Servers, Desktops, Laptops, Direct Attached Storage, Mobile Devices (iOS, Android), Symbology RF Barcode Scanners, Thermal Printers System Analysis: Process Flow Analysis, Lean Manufacturing Windows Administration : Active Directory, Exchange 2003, 2007, Group Policy, IIS, MSSQL, Remote Access, Terminal Server, Windows Server 2000, 2003, 2008 Monitoring Logging: Nagios, Ganglia, ELSA, AIDE, eEye Retina, Altiris, Microsoft SCCM Directory Services : Active Directory, Red Hat Directory Server, FreeIPA Automation Deployment : Puppet, Foreman, Perl, Bash Scripting, Power Shell Traditional Databases: MySQL, Postgres NoSQL Databases: Hadoop (Apache tarballs, CDH3/4 Hortonworks), CouchDB, MongoDB, Accumulo, MarkLogic Cloud/Virtual Hosting: Amazon EC2, Linode Management Tools : Symantec Management Platform 7, Altiris Deployment Solution 7, Altiris CMS 7, Ticketing Systems, Microsoft SCCM, FrontRange, Lansweeper, Kaseya MIS : Business Systems Analysis, Information Systems Design, Project Management Project Management: Risk Management, Progress Reporting, Project Facilitation, Budgeting, Retrospectives, Resource Planning, Scoping, Iterative Development and Planning, Project Scoping, Resource Identification, Budget Management, Timeline Management, Resource Identification, Risk Management, Change Management Server: Sendmail, Postfix, IIS, Apache, BIND, LAMP, FTP, DHCP, MySQL, SSL/TLS, CPanel, SMTP, SNMP Storage: Fibre Channel, FCoE, iSCSI, NFS, NAS, SAN Systems Analysis: Agile, Sequential, and Iterative methods of Analysis and college essays a difference Design, Object Oriented and The Cost of Pursuing Structured Systems Analysis Methods, Gathering Information, Documenting Business Process Workflow Windows Administration: Exchange, Active Directory, MSSQL Enterprise Systems Analysis and Integration: IS Analysis and Design, IS Infrastructure, Project Management, Change Management, Information Systems Design Technical Writing/Support: Problem Investigation, Documentation Creation, Training Curriculum, Technical Documentation, Quick Fact Guides Linux Administration: Ubuntu, RedHat, SuSE, LAMP Stack Content Management: FTP, WordPress, FOSWiki, Oracle Portal, Ek Security: GE Sapphire Pro Security Systems, Genesis Security Systems, Security Information Management System (SIMS), DVTel Video Surveillance, Lenel Access Control Networking : Active Directory, Cisco Systems Anyconnect, Cisco VPN Client, Juniper VPN Client, Virtual Networking Computing (VNC), Remote Desktop Connection (RDP), OpenVPN client and server Data Backup : FreeNAS, Cobian Backup, Crashplan Pro, Windows Backup Utility (Server 2008/7) Encryption : Wave Systems Endpoint Encryption, PGP, TruCrypt, Bitlocker. Once you have all the info that applies to you, try and cut it down to no more than half a page of the most relevant content. Then organize the categories the evaluation same as the bullet points: most impressive/important on The Cost of Pursuing Power top, lest important on bottom.

However, by typewriter, far the best method for The Cost Power, identifying a list of skills is to clown fish search for terms online. How Do I Fill Up the Rest of this Page? How to Write a Resume for Essay, System Administrators With No Experience: A lot of the advice given so far applies to people with all levels of nurse, experience, but Im sure some of you are looking for Essay, help with creating a Systems Administrator resume specifically because you have zero experience in self, the field and dont know how to fill a page with related, relevant content. Maybe you are still in school and just about to graduate. Or maybe you just completed your networking certifications and The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay are looking to get out of your current field. Either way, you can create an entry-level Systems Administrator resume that will be perfect for privatization examples, you. First, an important note regarding certifications: As soon as you figure out when you are going to earn a specific certification, like the CompTIA Network+ or Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) certification, list it. I know youre probably wondering how you can list a certification if you have not yet earned it or not sure when you will earn it. Well, theres a simple way around that issue.

Put the name of the certification, and after it put Expected September 2014, or whatever the Power Essay appropriate month or year is. This can always be changed later, and it has the advantage of showing employers that you have a plan to evaluation get these certifications, which is better than not listing it at all. The Cost Of Pursuing! Here are some examples: CompTIA + Expected July 2014 Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Routing and outline Switching Expected August 2014 Description The Complete Guide to The Cost Essay Writing Resumes for Social Media Job Openings. Tips, rules, and examples Included.

Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) Expected September 2014. You now have your certifications or future certifications listed, but if you dont have any work experience, you are going to need some more content to fill up a whole page. To do that we are going to create a projects section. We can either create a section called Independent Projects, or a section called Academic Projects if you are in school or are a recent graduate. Or you can create both if you have the projects to justify multiple sections. You are going to Balance Scorecard Care Organizations list projects you completed at school, in the course of getting your certifications, or on your own, and of Pursuing Power treat them like jobs you did.

We arent going to trick anybody into thinking they were professional, but we are going to present them the same way in order to communicate relevant skills and technological proficiencies to essays that a difference potential employers. For each project, create a header that says what the project was (ex. Virtual Server Build or Game Coding Project ) and the time you worked on it (January 2012 May 2012). Then write bullet points briefly describing the project and explaining how you used systems administration knowledge and skills. You might need to write some of your own bullet points to explain those experiences, but the same general concepts from the The Cost content above will work. Just choose a few bullet points that show some relevant skills that you learned during these projects. Thesis: Mobile OS Security Architectures September 2013 December 2013. Wrote a 48-page thesis identifying, analyzing, and comparing the base security architectures and clown fish histories of the iOS and Android mobile operating systems. The Cost Of Pursuing Power! Analyzed official reports and documentation from Apple and Google, as well as third party sources that identified security issues and detailed device architecture. Created and typewriter presented a twelve-minute tutorial video demonstrating the proper execution of the De-ICE 2.100 Penetration Test. Identified and prepared strategies to Essay achieve specified penetration goals, including obtaining root access to target machines, and uncovering hidden files. Incident Response Project March 2013 May 2013.

If you have been studying for the various certification tests at home and dont have any experience at mating, all, you could create an Independent Projects section that looks something like this: CCNA Laboratory January 2014 April 2014. Combine all of this with a technical skills section and whatever non-related work experience you have, including the job you had waiting tables, and you should be able to fill up a page. You dont want to spend bullet points and space describing unrelated jobs, but just showing you have actually worked before is The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay better than nothing. A well-written, detailed, and college essays made focused System Administrator resume or Network Administrator resume can secure you a well-paying position in The Cost Power Essay, nearly any industry.

Healthcare, finance, entertainment: just about examples, every industry needs System Administrators to design and maintain critical network infrastructure and systems. The Cost Essay! These jobs are everywhere, and the sad truth is that very few Systems Administrators know how to communicate their accomplishments and responsibilities effectively to both the nurse HR people who read resumes (and have no technical backgrounds) and of Pursuing Power Essay the IT Managers and Directors who are looking for specific technical skills and proficiencies. The title Systems Administrator can apply equally to individuals with a wide range of privatization examples, experience. You could be the veteran Technician with twenty years of The Cost Power Essay, systems administration and privatization engineering work experience, or you might be the Junior System Administrator who just earned their first Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA) or CompTIA certification. Although the general principles for creating a great System Administrator resume will apply to all Systems Administrators, regardless of The Cost Power, experience, this guide will teach how to distill many years of Balance Organizations, experience and Essay technical knowledge into a concise document that highlights your most impressive accomplishments and most important skills. Armed with an effective System Administrator resume and in Health cover letter, you are going to receive emails and calls looking to set up interviews immediately, no matter how much or how little experience you have. Five-thousand words about of Pursuing Power Essay, resume writing can look overwhelming at first glance. The truth is first I can easily write another five-thousand words with even more advice on how to write the ideal resume. Who has the time to Essay read that?

I want to Care Organizations hear what you think is missing from this article. What advice would you give someone applying to Systems Administrator jobs and related fields?

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SPSS, SAS, R, Stata, JMP? Choosing a Statistical Software Package or Two. In addition to the five listed in this title, there are quite a few other options, so how do you choose which statistical software to use? The default is to use whatever software they used in your statistics classat least you know the The Cost of Pursuing Power, basics. And this might turn out pretty well, but chances are it will fail you at some point. Many times the stat package used in a class is chosen for in Health Care Essay its shallow learning curve, not its ability to handle advanced analyses that are encountered in The Cost of Pursuing Power, research. I think Ive used at least a dozen different statistics packages since my first stats class. And here are my observations: 1. Marijuana Outline. The first one you learn is the hardest to learn. There are many similarities in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, the logic and wording they use, even if the interface is different.

So once youre learned one, it will be easier to learn the next one. 2. You will have to typewriter, learn another one. Just accept it. If you have the self discipline to do it, I suggest learning two at the beginning. The Cost Essay. This will come in handy for a number of typewriter reasons. My favorite stat package for a while was BMDP.

Until the company was bought up by SPSS. Im not sure if they stopped producing or updating it, but my university cancelled their site license. Many schools offer only a site license for only one package, and it may not be the one youre used to. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay. When I was at Cornell, they offered site licenses for 5 packages. First. But when a new stats professor decided to use JMP instead of Minitab, guess what happened to The Cost Essay, the Minitab site license?

Unless youre sure youll never leave your current university, you may have to start over. In case you decide to outwit the powers-that-be in IT who control the site licenses and buy your own (or use R, which is evaluation, free), no software package does every type of analysis. There is huge overlap, to be sure, and The Cost Power Essay the major ones are much more comprehensive than they were even 5 years ago. Even so, the gaps are in the most complicated analysessome mixed models, gee, complex sampling, etc. And when youre trying to learn a new, highly complicated statistical method is not the time to learn a new, highly complicated stats package.

For these reasons, I recommend that everyone who plans to do research for the forseeable future learn two packages. I know, its hard enough to find the time to start over nurse, and learn one. Much less the self discipline. But if you can, it will save you grief later on. There are many great books, online tutorials, and of Pursuing Power Essay workshops for learning all the typewriter, major stats packages. But I also recommend you choose one as your primary package and learn it really, really well. The defaults and assumptions and wording are not the Power, same across packages. Outline. Knowing how yours handles dummy coding or missing data is imperative to doing correct statistics. Which one? Mainly it depends on the field youre in. Social scientists should generally learn SPSS as their main package, mainly because that is what their colleagues are using.

You can then choose something else as a backupeither SAS, R, or Stata, based on of Pursuing Essay availability and Balance in Health Care Organizations Essay which makes most sense to you logically. This is Prasad, I am purshing Msc (statistics with computer applications) we can give the suggestion which software is better pls me suggests. I have also done MSC statistics but now I have a problem. Problem is that i did not know about the Statistics software such as SPSS,SAS,STAT,etc, Can you give me any suggestion. Basically Iam a Statistics background student completed my graduation in Statistics And now Iam pursuing my post graduation in statistics too. Iam going learn SAS is it okay for The Cost of Pursuing Power me ?? or any thing else you people are going to suggest please suggest me. Im in an agricultural institution,and most of my colleagues are using SAS SPSS in their researches.

For a change, Im planning to typewriter, use another statistical tool for The Cost Power Essay my research, the JMP. Could there be any difference? I have done MA economics and looking for supporting statical package for carrer betterment. Please suggest some statical package which can support to my economics degree.. Given that youre from Scorecard Care Essay Economics background, it is suggested to The Cost Essay, go ahead with STATA or SPSS. Stata has witnessed a rapid rise in typewriter, last few years ,especially all international org in India like UN office,World Bank regional office,Institute of economic growth, NCAER they all have swaped from spss to stata. I would recommend using R not only because it is free but because it has become an industry standard. Below is a link to a very good course that will teach you how to use R. The Cost Of Pursuing. Good luck! -Lisa. Hey Ganesh and Lisa, thanks for college a difference posting.

We have a great collection of resources for The Cost Power R, too, including 2 free webinars. Check them out here. I personally did my first degree in Quantitative Economics of clown fish Makerere University, and I have always felt at home using both STATA SPSS tools. Power. But more preferably STATA. If you are in the field of privatization examples Economic Research, Agricultural Reseach, Public health(Epidemiology), i would advise you use STATA instead of SPSS. In contrast, I think SPSS has better procedures when it comes to Power Essay, using graphs. In general, I prefer STATA to SPSS. I have also done MSC statistics but now I have a problem. Problem is nurse self, that i did not know about the The Cost Power, Statistics software such as SPSS,SAS,STAT,etc, Can you give me any suggestion.

Could anyone suggest me any site that has some good projects ( I am looking for beginners to intermediate level) that uses Stata as a tool? Here is a link to a book that I purchased that I thought was very helpful. I do not use Stata, however, I learned a lot by reading this book. (The workflow concepts carry over to anything.) Hope this helps! Hey Paul and Lisa, You can also check out essays that, our list of Stata resources, which includes 2 free webinars.

I definitely prefer NCSS, though not mentioned in The Cost Power, the article. Now the newest version pre-released even in clown, cloud. Hi Brandon. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay. I am using AppOnFly as well, but I have chosen SPSS to examples, do my analysis. They also provide a free trial of SPSS which is available for 30days: For a comparison of SPSS, SAS, R, Stata and Matlab for each type of statistical analysis, see.

I like to The Cost Power, use Java since it has good graphics. Therefore, my choice is SCaVis ( First. It integrates Java and Python with superb graphics. I am used to spss and stata for my data analysis, however today I tried adding analyse-it to my excel package. It really worked for me.

Can I really go ahead with it? I dont know much about the excel plug ins (or whatever the correct software term is). As a general rule, I avoid excel for data analysis, but this add-on may be just fine. You could also try the XLSTAT software statistical add-on. It holds more than 200 statistical features including multivariate data analysis, modeling, machine learning, stat tests and of Pursuing Essay field-oriented features Hi Karen, nice suggestions backed with arguments! On a different note, I wish to nurse self, hear your opinion on free software Have you, for example, had an experience with EasyReg? It seems to have much of the econometrics methods covered by far more than I would ever imagine to use , its easy to operate and The Cost of Pursuing is supported with PDF-files about marijuana outline, relevant theory. What do you think? (I have currently no access to commercial software, unfortunately.) Thanks!

I havent used that software before, but I can tell you there are many good stat software packages out of Pursuing Power Essay, there. Outline. If you like using it and of Pursuing Power Essay youre confident that its accurate, go with it. I often use r ! and sometimes work with SPSS and examples Excel,but at all, i prefer. to use R because i love programing and R is The Cost, a wonderfull language.also R isnt. limited! my goal idea is to privatization examples, create packages that cover shortage of other. softwares,and linking softwares toghether.Indeed,i like to ferret in softwares.

so,my first software is The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, R but i hasnt think about primiary software yet! so,i research about statistical softwares and decide to use STATA inside. Hi Morteza, I agree: R is privatization, awesome if you love programming. But do check out Stata too. Of Pursuing Essay. #128578; Hi karen do you really think that R is more efficient then Stata. First Typewriter. I think that you are right because in programming most of my fellows using R rather then Stata. So Agreed with you.. #128512; I use R and of Pursuing Power Essay Stata regularly.

Dollar for nurse self evaluation dollar, I personally think that Stata is the most comprehensive stats package you can buy. Excellent documentation and The Cost of Pursuing Power a great user community. R is excellent as well, but suffers from absolutely terrible online documentation, which (for me) requires third party sources (read: books). If somebody is outline, buying you a license, then you dont care what it costs. If someone like me has to buy a license, then to of Pursuing, me, Stata is a no-brainer, given all the stats you can do with it. My college eliminated both SAS and SPSS for that reason and use R for most classes. Rumor has it SAS is offering a new college licensing fee, but Im not privy to that information. Small sidebar: SAS started on first the mainframe and it annoys me that it still looks that way.

JMP is probably better (and again, expensive) but doesnt have anywhere the Power, capabilities if base SAS, the last time I looked. Just my opinions. I actually agree with you about Stata. If I were to privatization, start over, thats what I would use, especially, as youve said, if youre buying your own license. And Stata has the *best* manuals, IMHO.

Depends on which social scientists you are talking about. I doubt you will find many economists, for example, who do most (if any) of of Pursuing Essay their analyses in SPSS. Examples. If you absolutely must have a gui JMP is clearly the superior platform, since its scripting language can interface with R, and you can do whatever you please. Try searching for quantile regression in of Pursuing Essay, the SPSS documentation, it says the math is too hard, and SPSS cannot compute. Agreed, most economists Ive talked to use either Stata or Eviews. SPSS also interfaces with R. Sure, there are examples of specific analyses that cant be done in marijuana, any software. Thats one reason why its good to be able to The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, use at least two. I am SPSS and R loverin my university they use JMP softwarehow should I convince them that SPSS is outline, better than JMPor First of all can I convince them.

Well, Im sure theyll cite budget issues. The Cost Power Essay. But there are some statistical options in SPSS that are not available in fish, JMP. Power. I dont know of any where the reverse is true, although that may just be my lack of knowledge of JMP. For example, to the best of my knowledge, JMP doesnt have a Linear Mixed Model procedure. When you add random effects to a linear model in JMP the default is REML. In fact the fish mating, manual goes so far as to say REML for repeated measures data is the modern default, and JMP provides EMS solutions for univariate RM ANOVA only for historical reasons. JMP doesnt do multilevel models (more than 1 level of random effects), and I dont believe it does generalized linear mixed effects models (count or binary outcomes). I usually use Stata and R, but I keep an eye on JMP because it is a fun program sometimes. I have used it for repeated measures data by mixed model when a colleague wanted help doing it himself, where the posthoc tests where flexible and accessible, compared to The Cost Power Essay, his version of Stata or in self evaluation, R. Thanks, Dave.

Thats great to The Cost of Pursuing, know. Self. The last time I used JMP (which was a few years ago), REML wasnt an option. Yes, I agree. JMP is very straightforward and for of Pursuing Power 95% of privatization analyses that most researchers use, entirely sufficient. Good advice, all around. But if you choose SPSS as your primary package, SAS has little to offer you, and vice versa. The overlap is just too great to make either a good complement to the other. A factor to consider in The Cost Power Essay, choosing between the Big Two is your preferred user interface. If you dont want to program (much) and Organizations Essay you adore point-and-shoot interfaces, go with SPSS. If you dont mind programming explicitly, and The Cost of Pursuing Power despise point-and-shoot interfaces SAS will make you happier.

Another factor in choosing among the Big Two is your use of nurse self structural equation models (SEMs). If you dont use them its a non-issue. If you use them extensively, you should choose between EQS-like syntax (in SAS PROC CALIS) and SPSSs AMOS. SEMs are confusing enough without worrying about converting from your preferred expression of the models into the expression your software wants. Much better choices as a complement to one of the Big Two are Stata and some dialect of S (R, S, S-plus). The Cost. Stata users say it has some very slick programming facilities. (Im not among them, so I cant say from experience.) The S dialects are killers for simulation studies. I benchmarked R against SAS/IML (in version 9.1) and found R was an order of magnitude faster. R is built entirely around an object-oriented programming interface. Language extensions are a snap. In my opinion bootstrap estimation is easier in R than in other languages. High resolution graphics are native to R, and college that (despite a lot of improvement from The Cost of Pursuing Power versions 6 to 7 to 9.1 and 9.2) not native to Scorecard in Health Care Essay, SAS.

I think SAS becomes an of Pursuing Power, asset over SPSS when the focus is on data preparation: Merging multiple tables, accessing SQL databases, using API functions, creating canned reports, etc.. I am new to R.I would like to self, know R-PLUS.Does any know where can I get the free training for R-PLUS. I believe the above comment is The Cost Power Essay, spam. I am not aware of the existence of R-plus; googling revealed a word for word comment on privatization another site: Apologies to the commenter if this is The Cost Power, a genuine enquiry. I suspect it was real, only because there was no link back to nurse self, another site (you wouldnt believe the strange links I get).

I figured it was a language difficulty, and of Pursuing they meant S-Plus, on which R was based. Leave a Comment. by Stephen Sweet and. Copyright copy 2008-2017 The Analysis Factor. All rights reserved.

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Nov 17, 2017 The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay,

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flood geology essay History of the Collapse of Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is of Pursuing Power come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of first typewriter, gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of The Cost Power, it thirty cubits. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from The Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of Nuremberg, one of the most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and evaluation clerics from the The Cost of Pursuing Church of England attempted to demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on nurse evaluation the basis of biblical authority but also on mathematical and scientific grounds.

Their various theories reflected different conceptions of natural theology, the roles of science and theology, and the bearing of The Cost Power, Scripture on the interpretation of nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by Balance Scorecard in Health Care Essay, the fact that their proponents based them on relatively small bodies of The Cost Essay, favorable evidence and tended to ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the insurmountable problems of animal distribution and migration, for instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. On the other hand, the theorists were for the most part committed to providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the flood, and typewriter they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. The genuine spirit of scientific inquiry that they engendered and stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at Essay, the same time. Furthermore, the plethora of exegeses of the marijuana deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about whether the Bible was being properly used in trying to The Cost of Pursuing settle questions of geological history. College A Difference? By the middle of the eighteenth century, few competent proponents of diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the of Pursuing Essay attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by now familiar.

Scholars began with the assumption that the biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and then sought evidence of that event using the best scientific tools and typewriter evidence available to them. Power Essay? As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and when that happened, all those who were dedicated to the truth of the matter -- scientists and theologians alike -- abandoned the privatization examples discredited hypotheses and began to look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the of Pursuing Essay New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the essays serious problems raised for the concept of a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to seek ways to explain the deluge in scientific terms.

Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the church at large felt little need to adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. Christians rested secure in of Pursuing, the belief that the evaluation calculations of respected scholars established the The Cost Power Essay point that the typewriter ark could hold all known animals including those of the New World. The problems of migration from the ark were awkward but not insurmountable. There was no evidence to dispute the existence of former land bridges or to The Cost of Pursuing show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of environmental factors. Privatization Examples? Of course, the proposal of rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the The Cost Essay ark posed significant problems in its own right, since it presumes a rate of change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to the Middle East in privatization, still unexplored areas of Africa or Asia.

All of which is to say that at the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the case with geological evidence. Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and of Pursuing earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to clown mating uncover flaws in the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to challenge the basic thesis of a global deluge. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in nurse self evaluation, the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the of Pursuing eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the difficulties attendant on the discovery of the Americas. They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the flood as derived by biblical exegesis. Even commentators who did note the privatization problems were not of a mind to alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and The Cost Essay Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of British theological thought in the eighteenth century. For example, in his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater. [1] Likely aware of calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the requisite floodwater and clown mating possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the diluvialists, Henry wrote that the The Cost Power Essay flood came from the abyss. During the self flood the normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to true character.

Henry also suggested that the tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by the waters and that the heat of the sun helped to dry up the waning waters. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? On the whole, he paid scant attention to extrabiblical evidence or to privatization examples the problems that had plagued scholars during the previous century. Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay practical, and clown mating he expressly left the critical questions to Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the The Cost of Pursuing deluge in nurse, his exegesis of the text. He simply asserted the universality of the flood, the The Cost Power preservation of all species aboard the ark, and nurse the ability of waters of the deep and of Pursuing Essay rains to cover the earth fully. Once the flood was over, he said, the heat of the sun exhaled some of the college essays made water, and subterranean caverns soaked up the rest. [2] Several years later in his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the flood was highly probable. [3] In contrast, John Gill , the Baptist divine who pastored one church in Horsleydown for fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of contemporary discussions. Gill believed that the flood legends of the Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the universality of the The Cost Power Essay flood. He cited calculations by self, Buteo and Wilkins as establishing the point that the ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and food. He maintained that plenty of source water was hiding in subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and Black Seas as well as in the air. He specifically referred to of Pursuing Essay one writer's assertion that thick air is clown easily turned into The Cost of Pursuing, water and that the atmosphere might well extend as far as the moon.

Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the earth at a rate of 250 miles per day, then in the allotted time of 40 days, all the watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Gill also reckoned that the first typewriter highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. [4] Gill responded to concerns about animal migration by appealing to of Pursuing Essay the ability of wild creatures to swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of Scorecard in Health Care Organizations, water in boats. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the power and providence of God cannot do, who could not be at The Cost of Pursuing Essay, a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in all the parts of it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure? [5] The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the ark was more than adequate to contain all the animals and a difference their provisions. He further asserted that the ark was even large enough to have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at the last moment. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the flood in terms of second causes. Yet despite his reluctance to The Cost Essay discuss the mechanisms of the flood, he did suggest that at that made, the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in part ran off into Essay, the lower countries and the bed of the ocean, or sunk into caverns in the bowels of the earth. Marijuana Outline? He insisted that despite the contentions of The Cost Power, some learned men, the deluge was strictly universal and typewriter that even in his day, traces of the deluge are found in all parts of the earth.

Unfortunately he left no clue as to what he understood those traces to be. [6] Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. The Cost? They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the New World and were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the deluge. As the eighteenth century proceeded, however, the community of natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for all the earth's fossiliferous strata by means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and that made scientific reasons. The stress on the theological side accumulated as individual texts of Scripture were used to support a variety of The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, competing theories and speculations about earth history. [7] The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to refer to the abyss, comets, the Balance Scorecard in Health Organizations Essay ocean, and Power water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the relevant texts to first typewriter scientific problems of earth history led to a growing suspicion that the texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of questions they were not meant to answer. Theologically oriented naturalists began to wonder openly if the inspiration of the Bible extended to the sphere of science.

Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of redemption, theology, and The Cost Power morals? As the sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to back away from clown fish, grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. The exegetical tensions were more than matched by of Pursuing Essay, scientific tensions. Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and too little out of empirical evidence. Gradually the empirical discoveries of the eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Important developments in the study of rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of Stratigraphy and Geomorphology. At first, the Scorecard Organizations recognition that the earth's outer skin is typically stratified was readily integrated into theories of The Cost Power Essay, global diluvialism. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and others explained the strata as deposits of the receding deluge.

As the eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the significance of layering that a number of people began to describe stratified outcrops and first typewriter quarries in of Pursuing Power, the Philosophical Transactions of the clown fish mating Royal Society of of Pursuing Power, London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of specific gravities of the Balance Care Organizations strata. John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in 1719 and 1725 on strata in coal mines at Mendip in Somersetshire, and John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in connection with earthquakes. [8] Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in Power Essay, surficial deposits were also published. [9] By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of Scorecard Care, rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on the basis of their groups of strata. Much of that work was done in The Cost Power, continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of natural theology or the desire to produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at the university in Padua, and fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1705, concluded from his examination of Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the product of Woodward's deluge. He suggested that water would need to cover the globe for a much longer time than the Balance Care Essay year of the deluge in order to of Pursuing Essay lay down all the observed strata. [10] In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and in Health Care Essay naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. Power Essay? He generally attributed the primary mountains to the action of the privatization examples earth's internal fire. Of Pursuing? Despite his interest in cosmogony and positive references to outline Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for The Cost of Pursuing Essay, the diluvialism of Burnet or Woodward. According to Moro, the college made deluge ought to be believed according to the Scripture, as a miracle, and not to be proved by natural rules. [11]

A mining inspector and professor of Essay, mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in northern Italy by recognizing four different divisions. Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and clown mating marl containing abundant marine remains. Of Pursuing Power Essay? These deposits accumulated in valleys or on privatization the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in part derived by decay of the secondary rocks. Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.

The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the mountains by the action of running water. [12] German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the chair of natural history in the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. At the request of Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and his own explorations of the The Cost Power Essay Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of mountains was applicable to the Alps, the Apennines, the Caucasus, and several other ranges. [13] Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the world.

Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Balance Organizations Essay, Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of The Cost, fossils. Superimposed on these were local accidents. Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and first typewriter devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata. [14] The classification of Lehmann and Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, Saxony. Of Pursuing Power Essay? [15] Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for nurse self evaluation, the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). The Cost? He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . However, he introduced a new category of transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and graywackes that lay above the nurse primitive rocks but below the Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and Essay basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the alluvial series. He believed volcanic rocks to be very recent in the geological time scale. [16]

A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the fish mating eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. Individual strata could be distinguished within the The Cost Power various groupings, and their relative ages were determined by their position in a succession of that made a difference, strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from secondary and secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by of Pursuing Power, causes other than the flood. Evidences for such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of college essays that, angular unconformities in Scotland. [17] At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of steeply tilted layers. Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for important revolutions in of Pursuing Power, earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on edge, uplifted toward the surface, eroded to examples form a land surface, then submerged beneath the sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the various strata succeeded one another.

Lehmann , Fuchsel , and Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in many instances individual formations could be traced for tens or hundreds of miles. The thickness, extent, and Power orderliness of stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in the heyday of diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to account for in terms of a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to explain the surface features of the landscape. It had been widely accepted for some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and examples yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of The Cost Essay, having produced any major excavation. It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. College Essays Made A Difference? Surface deposits of gravel and sand found far from any existing river system were also considered by many to be evidence of of Pursuing Essay, a large inundation at some point in the past. Geological evidence was thus used to push the site of the typewriter flood's action from the strata to the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.

Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. Of Pursuing? The demise of diluvial cosmogony during the eighteenth century was facilitated not only by marijuana, the collection of new stratigraphic data but also by the emergence of neptunism as an alternative way of viewing the The Cost of Pursuing Essay earth's history. Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the case in Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on in Great Britain and America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ocean that covered the infant globe at self, creation. The theory had roots in The Cost of Pursuing, the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to enjoy widespread acceptance until the eighteenth century, following the publication of a volume entitled Telliamed by a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Outline? Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in the Middle East and of Pursuing Power Essay throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over the course of millions of years. [18]

French savant and director of the botanical garden in college that made, Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the theory of the recession of the ocean together in one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of The Cost of Pursuing Essay, biological and Balance Scorecard in Health Care geological phenomena in terms of the gradual cooling of the globe from an originally incandescent state over The Cost a period of tens of thousands of years. [19] The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by de Maillet and Buffon . And the outline Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay occurrence of fossils far inland from the sea and privatization examples the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the ocean. [20] The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . He interpreted mineralized veins and primitive rocks such as granite and schist as precipitates of chemicals originally dissolved in a universal ocean. Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the stratified rocks, particularly those of a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in origin. He further maintained that the transition and Flotz rocks were a combination of chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains. [21] Other neptunists regarded most of the layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, primitive mountains and subsequently tilted.

Werner's numerous disciples at Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an explanation for the formation of layered rocks, interest in the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for marijuana, the flood. Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the biblical flood deposited the rocks now categorized as secondary and tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and of Pursuing alluvial. Neptunists variously attributed the formation of at least secondary and typewriter some tertiary deposits (or at of Pursuing Power Essay, least transition and Flotz deposits) to the action of college made a difference, a shrinking ocean that predated the biblical flood, but some of Power Essay, them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and peat to the flood. Such deposits had frequently yielded the puzzling skeletal remains of nurse self evaluation, giant animals no longer known to exist. Of Pursuing Power? Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.

In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of these peculiar animal finds. [22] Issues of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the digging of wells or excavation for building foundations. [23] Particularly intriguing were a growing number of discoveries of teeth, tusks, and bones belonging to a strikingly elephant-like creature. [24] Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an elephant-like creature kept trickling in from the frozen expanses of outline, Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for insulation, and an exterior of long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. It fed on low tundra vegetation in of Pursuing, which it scraped away snow and ice with its ivory tusks. Several well preserved remains have been found in Siberia and Alaska and cave paintings in Spain and France show depictions of the Wooly Mammoth as seen by early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only about 10,000 years ago. Drawing by artist Josef Moravec of Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the Great 's envoy to China, not only encountered tusks and bones but saw remnants of a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. That Made? Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and Legs are found and The Cost of Pursuing Power noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and other rivers. One of self evaluation, his companions found a head when a frozen piece of riverbank collapsed.

Most of the The Cost of Pursuing Essay flesh was rotten. Nurse Self? Ides recounted an old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at least by reason of the The Cost Power Essay very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and examples forwards, and of Pursuing Power they died when they came in contact with air. In contrast, said Ides, the college essays that made Russians believed that there were elephants in the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the flood, the air became cold enough to freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in the Earth ever since, and so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood. Of Pursuing Power? [25] Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in the early eighteenth century. In a letter to privatization Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by the universal deluge.

When several large bones and a tooth were dug up in the Hudson River valley of North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to of Pursuing Essay an antediluvian giant. In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in a marsh near the examples Ohio River in Kentucky. Of Pursuing Power Essay? A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and two years later an account of some of the tusks and grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in the Wallkill Valley of Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from a swamp on Balance Scorecard in Health Care Essay the property of the Reverend Robert Annan . Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from a cave in western Virginia. Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an of Pursuing Essay, animal now known to be a giant extinct sloth. In the meantime, Siberia continued to Balance Scorecard in Health Organizations yield frozen carcasses of The Cost Power Essay, rhinoceros and mammoth, some of which were studied by privatization examples, Pallas. One of the more impressive finds was made by Power, Shumakhov in 1799 in the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. He revisited the site for several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.

During the fifth year, the carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. Marijuana? The tusks were chopped off and sold. Drawings of the creature came into possession of M. F. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in Essay, 1806 to see the carcass for himself. The trunk, tail, and one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Soft parts, except for typewriter, the skin on the head, one foot, and the side on which the animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and dogs. The animal, a male, had been well fed and fat. The hide preserved on the ground was covered with thick hair. The Cost Power? [26] Remnants of the beast were returned to the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the discovery of fish, most far-reaching significance took place in 1797 at Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in a layer of The Cost Essay, gravelly soil. The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in great numbers at the depth of outline, about twelve feet, in a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size, of some unknown animal.

The significance of the discovery, however, was not immediately recognized. [27] Neptunism and the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to the deluge, perhaps during long ages of creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of most of the monstrous animals discovered during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had come from swamps, marshes, and gravels that formed subsequent to The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and Balance in Health Care Organizations Essay Scripture (and particularly the Power Noachic flood) were forged in first typewriter, the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Kirwan, a chemist and The Cost Power mineralogist, Inspector of Mines for Ireland, and fish eventually long-time president of the of Pursuing Royal Irish Academy, discussed the topic of the deluge in a lengthy article. [28] He suggested in neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an amount of time necessary for the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to self withstand the shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at higher elevations than that could only have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in the fact that the The Cost Essay fossil remains of organisms that dwell in widely disparate and distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to fish mating Africa and India could never have survived alive.

Kirwan argued that the remains must have been swept into the harsher regions over great distances from their native habitats by an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the deluge originated in the ocean south of the equator and rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of animals such as elephants from the southern countries and marine species from southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in The Cost of Pursuing Essay, surficial deposits. The force of the fish flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of animals native to the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of of Pursuing Essay, a violent shock or impression from the south were perceptible in the shapes of the mountains. Indeed, he found evidence in clown, the very shapes of the continents, which tend to The Cost Essay be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the self evaluation mountains could resist.

Finally, an inundation from the southeast would also have been necessary to drive the Power Essay ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against a continent that at one time likely united Asia and America. A Difference? This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only scattered islands. The progress of the surge was checked by the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into China, the torrents picked up the soil covering what is of Pursuing Essay now the Gobi Desert and pressed on toward the north polar regions. Here the torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. But on the way these huge torrents dashed over the mountains bearing over them the vegetable and animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by the water.

As evidence, Kirwan called attention to the similarities in first typewriter, shapes of coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the The Cost Power depression of privatization, such a vast tract of land cannot appear improbable when we consider the shock it must have received, and the enormous load with which it was charged. [29] The concussion of water also rent the basaltic masses along the Scottish and Irish coasts into pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of man were present on the ark. Power Essay? Since the ravenous animals would have posed a threat to the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. College Made? He likewise attributed the animals of of Pursuing Power Essay, America and of the torrid and frigid zones to a subsequent creation . Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of essays that a difference, oxygen that the of Pursuing Power atmosphere before the flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the antediluvians. After the flood, however, the surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and fish which absorbed oxygen and supplied only mephitic and fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to its present state.

He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to college essays a difference him, to the regions he inhabited before the flood, in the vicinity of China, and The Cost of Pursuing Power hence the early origin of the Chinese monarchy. [30] The widespread opinion that the world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in terms of the action of a biblical global deluge had faded. Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of marine shells, and graveyards of vertebrates. The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at outline, the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to account for those rocks.

Developments in Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by growing knowledge about animal and plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to the Pacific were continuously adding to the list of organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on marijuana outline a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of animals was created in a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for such conditions. Reindeer and The Cost Essay arctic lichens existed at the summit; tropical palms and monkeys lived at the base.

Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and the mountain was an entire world in miniature. [31] In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the animals spread out to examples their ultimate environments and latitudes as the of Pursuing Power universal ocean shrank and nurse evaluation exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by descent through successive generations. He argued that the number of individuals in The Cost, a species is constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to one set of primeval parents created by God. Linnaeus further stressed the outline notion that the function and structure of an organism is Essay indissolubly linked to self evaluation the environment for The Cost Power, which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Linnaeus objected to the notion of a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the God-ordained stability of nurse, creation. How could all the animals have migrated from an The Cost Power Essay, ark when they were now so well adapted to their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to the bitter cold of the far north, survive a trek from the ark to the tundra of Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of his theory of the cooling of the globe. All life, he claimed, began near the north pole when that locality was much warmer and then migrated southward as the planet cooled.

The southward movement of organisms into the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to increased isolation as animals were cut off from one another by wide oceans. [32] In the first detailed review of mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the fish mating concept of a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of original created pairs existing in the same place on of Pursuing the ground that the first typewriter first pair of The Cost, lions would quickly have devoured the first pair of sheep, goats, and other species, and would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the marijuana outline first pair of everything else. Of Pursuing? Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in evaluation, the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at the time of species creation. Thus whole environments were created at once. [33] Summary of Eighteenth-Century on the Flood. Despite the considerable body of scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the ark, the worldwide distribution of animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the of Pursuing more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to privatization extrabiblical information and were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.

John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the case for of Pursuing, a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to that made appreciate the very close dependency of of Pursuing Power, species on their habitats. Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in theories depending on outline any sort of natural migration of The Cost Power Essay, animals over marijuana long distances. It is possible for only a very few species to migrate over The Cost long distances; the essays made a difference absence of appropriate food, water, and The Cost climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to various surface features and deposits. Coupled with this shift in understanding of the deluge's effects was a growing sense that the typewriter earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the biblical texts relevant to earth history.

Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Of Pursuing Power? Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in privatization, quarries, cliffs, and mountains had anything to do with the flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from a shrinking primeval ocean. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in successive interchanges of land and The Cost of Pursuing sea, possibly over long periods of time before the advent of human beings. Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Great thicknesses of strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of marijuana outline, having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and The Cost Essay tilting, and severe erosion of the tilted rocks before deposition of the outline next sequence of strata.

Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and various other observational and experimental findings accumulated to suggest that the earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in it no data, from which the commencement of the present order can be ascertained, there are many by The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, which the existence of mating, that order may be traced back to an antiquity extremely remote. [34] Students of geology were now mapping secondary and tertiary strata in detail. In southern England, for The Cost Power Essay, example, the engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the stratigraphy of much of the secondary sequence during the privatization examples last decade of the eighteenth century. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? In the first decade of the following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris did the essays made a difference same with tertiary strata in The Cost Power, the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by their own distinctive fossil fauna.

And Cuvier recognized that the Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Both the fish regular distribution of fossils and the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to reason that the deluge could have produced the of Pursuing Power earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the earth had also become increasingly reluctant to indulge in college essays made a difference, grandiose cosmogonical theories. [35] Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to catastrophic diluvial action. Recognizing the tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the multitude of The Cost Essay, important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and the need for a reasonable theory of the nurse earth at The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, the close of the marijuana eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of of Pursuing Essay, philosophy at the Academy of Geneva, published an agenda for future research to privatization provide a foundation for a theory of the Power earth. First Typewriter? Among the matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. Of Pursuing? In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of high elevation pebbles and rolled blocks foreign to typewriter the soil which bears them and of the large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the direction, size and force of the Power currents produced by the grand revolutions of the privatization examples earth. He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by waves that raised them from the bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by huge tides. [36] De Saussure spoke for the geological community when he identified the role and effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. During the early nineteenth century there was no shortage of top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.

Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of both vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy, was a professor of zoology at the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. [37] He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of opportunities rather than as a body of belief. His handling of the issue of the flood, says Outram, was not motivated by any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. Of Pursuing Power? In his Essay on Balance in Health Organizations Essay the Theory of the Earth , an introduction to The Cost of Pursuing Essay his monumental multi-volume work on fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over long ages by repeated irruptions and retreats of the sea. [38] The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and Balance Care overturned strata, the presence of Power Essay, heaps of first typewriter, debris and rounded pebbles found among the solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in The Cost of Pursuing Power, surface deposits of the marijuana outline northern regions. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of Balance Scorecard in Health Care Essay, several large mammals such as the mammoth. Cuvier asserted on zoological grounds that the most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the existence of many traditions, including that of Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. The Cost Essay? Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is nurse any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is, that the crust of our globe has been subjected to The Cost of Pursuing a great and sudden revolution, the epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the college essays countries which were before inhabited by men and by Essay, the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the bed of the last ocean, which now forms all the countries at present inhabited; that the small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over the lands then newly laid dry; and consequently, that the human race has only fish mating, resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and of learning. [39] Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of this recent catastrophe with the Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of Parliament, and of Pursuing Power Essay one of the founders and first president of the evaluation Geological Society of London in The Cost Power, 1807, also stopped short of such an identification.

In A Critical Examination of the first typewriter First Principles of Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the The Cost Power Essay face of Europe. He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the in Health only remaining cause, to of Pursuing Power which these effects can be ascribed, is a Debacle or Deluge. [40] To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the deluge had swept over the Alps and the mountains of Balance in Health Organizations Essay, Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the The Cost of Pursuing Moluccas, the Philippines, and other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the bones could have traveled from the Indian Ocean to Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for typewriter, instance.

He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in the Arctic could not have been transported there from Power Essay, southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Clown Fish Mating? Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and horse. Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and Power he questioned whether the volume of water involved would have been adequate to produce the typewriter presumed disruption. The rising of these islands could displace only a quantity of water equivalent to their bulk, wrote Greenough, and such a quantity would not have been able to surmount the mountains of of Pursuing, Asia. Greenough also rejected a proposal of Scorecard Organizations, Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and good friend of James Hutton , to account for the granite blocks dispersed over the Jura mountains by The Cost Essay, a debacle. Typewriter? [41] Despite problems with the The Cost of Pursuing Power various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the widespread distribution of alluvial sand and gravel proved that the same inundation had affected all countries, as did the first typewriter universal occurrence and The Cost Power distinctive symmetry of mountains and outline valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the direction in which the waters of the deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments. Of Pursuing Power? [42] The timing of the privatization geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on the earth's surface features with the The Cost Essay biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to fish mating determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the creation of man. There existed only the negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of Power Essay, art had been discovered either in the regular strata or in the diluvian surficial deposits. [43] A more difficult matter was the cause of the Scorecard in Health Organizations deluge.

Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of inundating continents, and giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the interior constitution of the earth, or deranging the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to the earth. [44] Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at Oxford in 1819. Buckland was a minister in college a difference, the Church of England with moderate broad church sympathies. As indicated by his advocacy of the gap theory for Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of The Cost of Pursuing Power, time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the in Health Care Organizations initial creation and the state of formlessness of the earth), he did not insist on strict biblical literalism. Buckland was very sensitive to The Cost two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in reconstructions of geological history than it had a century earlier despite the considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to college that a difference theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the suspicions of the theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to revealed religion by painstakingly demonstrating the compatibility of geology and religion, particularly with regard to the flood.

Buckland's strategy was to show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of classical learning. As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the diluvial theory became the linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an Oxford education. The Cost Power Essay? [45] Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in Scorecard in Health Organizations, efforts to harmonize geology and Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on the most essential points, including the deluge. He virtually equated the hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of Moses and optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an universal deluge at no very remote period is proved on grounds so decisive and incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of The Cost Power, such an clown fish, event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in the assistance of some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at a period not more ancient than that announced in the Book of Genesis. Power? [46] Just what were those decisive and incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the shape and position of essays that made, hills and valleys as well as the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. Clown Fish? He argued that gravel deposits around the world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the The Cost of Pursuing Essay unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to a deluge. The two great points of the relatively late appearance of the human race and clown fish mating the universality of of Pursuing Essay, a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to light by Geological investigations. Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in the deluge but were rather deposited in a slow and gradual manner during successive periods of both tranquillity and great disturbance.

In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the destruction of more ancient consolidated rocks and then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and destroyed the evaluation consolidated strata, the strata themselves could not have been formed in the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. According to The Cost Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the same as those of the Balance in Health present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on a variety of The Cost of Pursuing Power, geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and clown fish mating William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the highly respected Outlines of the The Cost Power Geology of essays that, England and Wales. Conybeare was an early member of the Power Geological Society of London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and nurse self dean of Llandaff. The Cost Of Pursuing? Like Buckland, he was an Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to look kindly on non-literal scriptural interpretations, and college essays made a willingness to cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the The Cost of Pursuing Power secondary formations of southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over in Health Organizations Essay the consolidated strata and indiscriminately covered the whole surface. This inundation was the last great geological change to which the surface of our planet appears to have been exposed. He called this general covering of water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to which it seems most properly assignable. [47]

In the meantime, in 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at The Cost of Pursuing, Kirkdale in Yorkshire. Privatization Examples? As one of the cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge. [48] The exploration of The Cost Essay, caves for fossils had recently taken on considerable importance. Buckland had already examined a few, but the nurse evaluation remains of The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, Kirkdale provided the occasion for Balance Scorecard Essay, compiling a vast catalogue of Power Essay, physical evidence in support of a recent global flood. Buckland placed on a sound empirical, systematic basis the flood catastrophism expressed by Cuvier and implicit in the thought of many contemporary geologists. Balance Scorecard In Health Care Essay? Following the publication of a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in 1823. Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the of Pursuing Power conclusions of marijuana, his work afforded the strongest evidence of an universal deluge and expressed the hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of which the truth of the Mosaic records is of Pursuing Power so materially involved. [49] Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the inundation had occurred at high elevations. Marijuana Outline? Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the heights of Mont Blanc to the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on the elevated plains of South America showed that all the The Cost of Pursuing Essay high hills and the mountains under the whole heavens were covered when the last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe. Nurse Self? [50] Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the geological and biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the results of the The Cost Power discoveries at Kirkdale and privatization examples several other British and European caves. He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and concerning accumulations of diluvial loam and gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. All of these facts, said Buckland, cast light on the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and The Cost of Pursuing affording one of the most complete and satisfactory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in marijuana outline, the course of Essay, my geological investigations. [51]

In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and snipes. The bones, some of which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the crystalline material. The red mud had been covered by later stalactitic deposits devoid of animal remains. Buckland concluded that the gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into a lair of hyenas. College? He contended that the red mud covering the assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into the cave by the deluge and hence he maintained that the stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and the presence of undecayed bones as evidence that the mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by The Cost of Pursuing Essay, Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the earth was about five or six thousand years. [52] In the marijuana latter part of the of Pursuing Power book, Buckland discusses the dispersion of the bones of extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an appendix in which he argues that the college essays that a difference flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the huge valleys in which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and of Pursuing Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out of the first typewriter north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Power, Europe and North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in his contribution to the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.

during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by Scorecard in Health Care Essay, which they were extirpated. Hence it seems more probable, that the of Pursuing event in question, was the last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by violent irruptions of water, rather than the comparatively tranquil inundation described in the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against mating, the attempt to identity these two great historical and natural phenomena, that, as the rise and fall of the waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to have been gradual and of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on Essay the surface of the country they overflowed. Clown Fish Mating? [53] Although he still endorsed the notion of great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from identifymg the geological and biblical deluges, and he also attributed the The Cost of Pursuing Power extinct cave animals to a time prior to the creation of man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the years in which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in the Auvergne region of central France, a region previously explored by Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. The nature of these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of controversies over the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Marijuana Outline? Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and others who belonged to the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to The Cost Power compare the Auvergne rocks with basalts of disputed origin in Scotland and Ireland.

They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of evaluation, volcanic events in Auvergne, including eruption of Essay, basaltic lava flows from the cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at self, Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the Power Essay neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of nurse, Buckland and enthusiastic advocate of the diluvial origin of Power Essay, valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of Auvergne must all have been posterior to self the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? [54] Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to the establishment of American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and founding in evaluation, 1818 of the American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is devoted almost exclusively to geology. [55] Among other things, he brought out an The Cost, American edition of a textbook by British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of essays made, geology with sacred history. Power Essay? [56] Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of stratified rocks could have been the work of a global deluge. But, he continued, the surface of the planet is covered with wreck and nurse self evaluation ruin that can be justly attributed to mighty floods and rushing torrents of water. Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to Europe; we must charge to The Cost moving waters the outline undulating appearance of stratified sand and gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of New Haven, and in other regions of Connecticut and New England, wrote Silliman. He attributed to diluvial agency both bowlder stones and the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and skeletons of extinct species, and many beds of oyster shells were probably the result of diluvial action.

He believed that the tusla of the Power extinct elephant that had been found in northern Asia were deposited there by a deluge that drowned and buried the bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the universal deluge of clown, Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, legible characters, the necessary physical effects of mating, such a debacle. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to The Cost Power accomplish the rounding of boulders. Like Cuvier and Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the geological with the clown fish mating Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to The Cost Power 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in Europe and North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of marijuana outline, diluvial catastrophism in America several years after it had fallen out of favor in Europe.

The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and a British and American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon closer inspection. As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. The Cost Of Pursuing? Perhaps the most perceptive of those taking a closer look at the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in Aberdeen in 1834 and an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the Church of Scotland who participated in the disruption of 1843 to join the clown Free Church of Scotland. In a series of articles published during the 1820s in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against diluvial catastrophism. In an initial poke at The Cost, current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the tendency of naturalists to blur the distinction between the self genus and species of fossil remains. We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to Essay the living species, or to a member of the same genus only, now extinct. [57] Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in tropical regions, naturalists got into trouble by speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into nurse self evaluation, their present situation, by some violent means, from tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the warmth of a tropical climate. Fleming argued that the unbroken state of the remains rendered the Essay violent transportation idea absurd, and astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.

Fleming vs. First Typewriter? Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of Europe, Asia, and America. As amply demonstrated by the anatomical studies of Cuvier and others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and could well have been native to northern countries. In fact, the The Cost of Pursuing Essay Lena River delta carcass discovered in 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to marijuana suggest that it was not a native of a tropical climate, but an inhabitant of a cold region.

This particular species of elephant was suited to live in Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the of Pursuing Essay cave as the den of an extinct species of hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Similar mud in other caves was claimed to essays made a difference be fluvial; why not that at The Cost Power, Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the ox and horse to survive. The subdivision of strata into typewriter, diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and acknowledged post-diluvian marl. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by The Cost Essay, the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the fish mating deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from The Cost Power Essay, concluding that he was hostile to Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and the Bible were proving rash and harmful.

Of course, the works and the words of God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of revelation had been established through the ages. But interpreters of the book of nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of observation too limited, and their prejudices too obvious, to permit any high value to be attached to their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the structure of the self earth, and the laws which regulate the physical distribution of its inhabitants and The Cost Power Essay less eager to first typewriter identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the interests of revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from its very nature, add the weight of a feather to The Cost of Pursuing the moral standard which he has embraced, or the anticipations of essays a difference, eternity in which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the ark.

This indiscreet union of Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to verify the censure of Bacon, by producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the Testimony of Moses and the Phenomena of Nature. [58] Fleming was concerned that Buckland in particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to become overactive in his desire to find evidence for The Cost Essay, the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the extinction of many species of quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at least a pair of every kind. Buckland contended that the flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the marijuana outline flood, and if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for the waters to rise. If the flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is The Cost hard to imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the nurse self Bible reports. Buckland said that the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay flood excavated deep valleys by tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the same appearance before and after the flood. If one took the Balance in Health Essay biblical reference to the olive leaf seriously, one would have to The Cost of Pursuing Essay conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to have disturbed the soil or trees; and the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the flood further indicated that the soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the college a difference flood from The Cost of Pursuing Power, Ovid rather than the Bible. Marijuana Outline? Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of all forms of flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of revelation heightened, when I see on the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of river valleys and canyons, gravel beds, mud in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, caves, and extinct animals to the action of the flood. First Typewriter? The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by the tremendous power of the flood as it drained off the surface of the earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to the existence of tributaries mirrors the shapes of modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? It was clear to Fleming that ancient canyons and essays that valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of running water rather than by Power, a stupendous but brief flood.

Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is privatization examples no way they could have carved deep valleys out of solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Throughout the 1820s, the Auvergne district received continued attention from three of Scorecard Care Organizations Essay, Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the of Pursuing Essay valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of rivers and streams over a long period of time was perfectly capable of excavating the valleys. Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over fish that part of Europe, then the The Cost of Pursuing Power cinder cones from which some of the older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and they had not been. [59] By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about a single universal deluge and were taking another look at the physical evidence. Authorities began to outline issue public recantations. Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of diluvial catastrophism. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Yet, upon retiring from the presidency of the Geological Society of typewriter, London in 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the The Cost of Pursuing Power deluge theory:

There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the vast masses of diluvial gravel, scattered almost over the surface of the earth, do not belong to one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth. We saw the clearest traces of diluvial action, and we had, in our sacred histories, the record of a general deluge. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. In Health Care? Our errors were, however, natural, and of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to refer all the secondary formations of geology to the Noachian deluge. Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of of Pursuing Essay, my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to clown fish read my recantation. [60] Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in referring all superficial gravel to the action of the Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of humanity had been recovered from those deposits. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Not a word in the Bible or the traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the intelligible records of the The Cost Power event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and nurse evaluation followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the Power mechanism of nature.

Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the college a difference earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the fact of a recent deluge; and we have prepared the mind, doubting about the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay truth of things of evaluation, which it knows not either the origin or the of Pursuing Essay end, for the adoption of this fact on the weight of historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in first typewriter, 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge. [61] But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. He acknowledged his debt to Lyell for bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and The Cost of Pursuing England are not the mating waifs and The Cost Essay strays of one, but of several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to convince Greenough of his error?

In the privatization examples final volume of his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of cold water on current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the of Pursuing Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. [62] Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to the volcanoes of clown fish mating, Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of of Pursuing, a general flood over all parts of the surface of the globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the evidence, but he did leave the door open for a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to typewriter the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the ocean and Essay large tracts of dry land depressed below that level in Balance Scorecard in Health Organizations, a given region. Lyell postulated that if the waters of The Cost of Pursuing, Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by marijuana outline, the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of The Cost of Pursuing, western Asia has an area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.

The lowest parts in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the level of the Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the plain, and if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in a flood of the region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of older commentators held to the geographical universality of the flood and that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of first typewriter, a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the Essay biblical narrative did not indicate the college that impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in the deluge. Lyell confessed reluctance to talk about the flood at Power, all because of the sensitive nature of people's feelings about the subject. Marijuana? He concluded his digression by asserting that he had always considered both the causes and effects of the flood to be in The Cost of Pursuing Power, the preternatural category beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry. And he warned those who were anxious to point out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of evaluation, such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in the Mosaic history, least of all so remarkable a fact as that the olive remained standing while the waters were abating.

Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to say that he did not see any geological evidence to support the notion of a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the strictest interpretation of the The Cost of Pursuing scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the first typewriter early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to changes in their view of earth's history and the role of the Power Essay Noachic deluge in it. They all paid scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to that information. Many of college essays that, them were orthodox Christians, and of Pursuing Power yet they felt no need to first typewriter distort the evidence they encountered in order to of Pursuing Essay sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of college essays, even the most ardent advocate of the deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the notion of a global or at least continental deluge. Every one of them rejected the of Pursuing Essay old diluvialism which attributed the deposition of fossiliferous secondary and tertiary strata to fish the flood, however.

They identified only surface deposits as the effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Buckland, Sedgwick, and others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and The Cost Power the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of evaluation, a giant deluge. Because the Christian naturalists of the era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the The Cost of Pursuing Essay biblical text in order to clear up earlier mistakes in nurse self, interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of gravels, boulders, and wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Power? Although James Hutton and John Playfair had described before 1800 the effects of glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of Balance Organizations Essay, their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of glacial phenomena in the Alps during the 1820s and The Cost of Pursuing 1830s. Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and college essays sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by The Cost of Pursuing, advancing ice.

He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of Cuvier and professor in the College of self evaluation, Neuchatel who was already renowned for pioneering studies on Power fossil fish, was given a guided tour of glacial phenomena in evaluation, the Rhone River valley by The Cost Essay, Charpentier. Nurse? Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an enthusiastic convert. He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by the summer of 1837 to create a sensation with a lecture before the Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to Power the Mediterranean Sea during the evaluation Pleistocene epoch. [63] Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in Power Essay, Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Hoping to discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in nurse self, one of the most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and transported erratics on the southeastern slopes of the Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in The Cost of Pursuing Power, the Alps.

Buckland received a firsthand lesson in the capabilities of flowing ice and college that made a difference was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and of Pursuing Power England and had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Scorecard Care Organizations Essay? Buckland had become a glacialist. Of Pursuing Power? Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . He, Buckland, and college made Lyell also gave important papers in late 1840 before the Geological Society of London on of Pursuing Essay the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and striated and polished bedrock. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of icebergs swept over nurse self land accounted for some of the features more effectively than the Power action of glaciers.

In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the marijuana erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in the context of the deluge hypothesis. A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to the diluvial phenomena. Power Essay? Many of his contemporaries eventually followed. [64] Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over the flood and in Health Organizations glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and subdivision of the simple geological time scale inherited from the eighteenth century. By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined. [65] The subdivisions were worked out primarily in the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.

The secondary rocks of Essay, England were fruitfully subdivided. These rocks consisted of a very thick series of Scorecard in Health Care Organizations Essay, strata that had first been mapped by William Smith. In a book issued in 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and extended the sequence and lumped the strata into groups of related units. For example, they defined the succession of strata including a prominent formation in Scotland and western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the Coal Measures as the Carboniferous Order because of the abundance of coal in The Cost, the succession. During the latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and Scorecard Care Organizations Essay Roderick Murchison mapped and described a terrane of rocks that lay beneath the of Pursuing Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian . [66] Sedgwick and privatization examples Murchison also mapped the The Cost Essay transition rocks of in Health, Wales over a period of years. [67] Despite bitter disputes about how to classify these strata, the geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in The Cost Essay, these strata. Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by examples, these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in 1840. [68] There he recognized rocks that he assigned to the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on The Cost of Pursuing Essay the basis of their fossil content.

Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in clown fish, Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the formations with Carboniferous fossils. On another trek toward the Urals the following year, Murchison found another group of The Cost Power Essay, strata with unfamiliar fossils above the Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the Carboniferous. Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of marijuana, thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.

These chalks were traced across the English Channel into The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, France and Belgium, where they had been designated the Cretaceous Terrane in mating, 1822 by Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the British chalk and marl are various limestones. Because of the abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in many of the limestones, the entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the same stratigraphic position as limestones in the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the limestones and overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the third volume of his Principles of Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of modern species of The Cost of Pursuing, fossil shells in clown, the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to describe alluvial, lacustrine, and of Pursuing Power volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in France. Nurse? The term Pleistocene also was applied to Quaternary deposits to describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on The Cost the basis of nurse self evaluation, successions of superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and Balance in Health Pliocene strata. [69] These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of The Cost Essay, a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the strata were clearly in college that, a right-side-up position.

Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the world on the basis of superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to The Cost Power different periods were often separated from one another by erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and privatization erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of a given sequence of The Cost, sedimentary rocks. Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over long periods of time in privatization examples, alternating marine and terrestrial environments. Power? In the face of the wealth of new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the marijuana outline consolidated fossiliferous strata to the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and subdivision of of Pursuing, strata and expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and terrestrial vertebrates that made the clown extinct elephants appear tame by comparison. Some of the of Pursuing Power Essay most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous beds of marijuana outline, southern England by Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of The Cost of Pursuing Power, eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and in Health Organizations Essay membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of Jurassic and Power Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and a fierce fifteen- to twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Remains of a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from Oxford.

Caves yielded bones and skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and the cave bear. Privatization Examples? In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the Stonefield Slate. Of Pursuing Power? Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and nurse self plesiosaur teeth and bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus . [70] One of the The Cost great collectors of the era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the outline Royal College of Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century. [71] Owen described and reconstructed skeletons of several great extinct lizards and in 1841 proposed the establishment of a new suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for Power Essay, which I would propose the college that a difference name of Dinosauria . The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? [72] He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in nurse, Australia. Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.

The rapidly expanding list of newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of questions in connection with the biblical account of the flood. Power? The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. First Typewriter? By this point, it had really ceased to be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by a weight of evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and compelling. They were accustomed to interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the advent of human beings. But for laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to think of fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, all land animals had been preserved on the ark now had to include among them not only lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and a host of other extinct mammals. The prospect of an ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the limits of credulity. The most obvious way to nurse evaluation avoid the problem was to assume that God had eliminated such beasts in the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the The Cost Essay biblical account, which states that God preserved at least two of every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is not faced squarely by proponents of flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and limited areas.

Fossil kangaroos , for example, were found only in Australia, and in Health Care Organizations fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. The problem of migration thus became doubly severe for those who wished to preserve a literal reading of the biblical text: they not only had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay ark to Australia after the flood but they also had to argue that kangaroos had found a way to migrate from Australia to the ark before the flood. After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to assume the occurrence of a global deluge. Despite the unceasing deluge of discoveries in the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the clown fish mating global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the tendency of geologists to develop theories apart from The Cost Power, a recognition of Mosaic history. Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Some sought to update the diluvialism of Woodward and examples Catcott. For the of Pursuing Essay most part, as James R. Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and antiquaries -- those, in general, with vested interests in mediating the meaning of first, books, rather than rocks, in The Cost of Pursuing Power, churches and classrooms. A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to privatization examples biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of scriptural geologists. [73] The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and William Kirby were typically marked by a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to make exceptions. [74] They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and Essay paleontological data.

Perhaps pride of place among the scriptural geologies belongs to A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by God. We would be sure to reason unphilosophically and falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to conclude that a piece of granite had formed by aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the laws which [God] was then about to establish, said Penn, and in anticipation of effects and appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of those laws. [75] Penn also spoke directly to the issue of the flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the Bible's revelation of a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of water. On the third day of creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to rush in. A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and fish rendering the former seabed habitable. Of Pursuing? This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.

The practitioners of mineral geology erred by presuming numerous revolutions. Scripture provided a true chronological order of geological events consisting of a first formation, a first revolution on Balance Scorecard in Health Organizations the third day of creation, a long period of relative calm, and a second revolution during the flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and The Cost of Pursuing Power other marine substances were quietly deposited during the privatization examples 1,656-year interval between the The Cost of Pursuing Power two revolutions. During the flood, incessant cataracts of marijuana, rain and of Pursuing Power the overflow of the essays that a difference rivers stripped off soils and vegetation. Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and the continuous flux and reflux of currents.

Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. Human beings, on the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into Power Essay, the vortex created by the conflux of the two seas meeting from the opposite hemispheres on the subsidence of the marijuana outline last intervening land; and would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into The Cost of Pursuing, the profundity of the new sea. [76] Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the ark had not in fact carried representatives of nurse, all the earth's animals. He stated that the extinction of animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of God's plan of renovation. He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the original vegetation. The Cost Essay? [77] Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for nurse evaluation, example, why the rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. His solution was to resort to The Cost of Pursuing Power the exegetical subterfuge of postulating that the description of the rivers was a parenthesis inserted into the direct thread of the privatization examples history for the purpose of illustration. The fluvial description introduced into the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the Mosaical history, he wrote, and so had no weight to affect the strong evidence of the Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by The Cost of Pursuing, the deluge.

Even the made a difference most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to of Pursuing Power Essay devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in an appendix to the Bridgewater Treatise written by William Kirby , a biologist of modest accomplishments and one-time president of the Royal Society. [78] He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. consequences of the biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the college that made a difference fact that the of Pursuing Essay field had been dominated by various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for the flood, for instance, and cited the abundant fossils in stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and privatization examples Period of the Mosaic Deluge was issued in 1837. Fairholme lamented the fact that belief in a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the The Cost of Pursuing Essay growing body of evidence to college essays that made a difference the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of complete demonstration . by a mass of exclusively physical testimony. What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of great age and were deposited rapidly and continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the next layer was deposited on top of The Cost of Pursuing, it.

Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on marijuana this basis he proceeded to conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by causes in existence today. [79] To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of The Cost of Pursuing, recession of Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only five thousand years ago. Marijuana? Since North America is of Pursuing Power Essay underlain by aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the sea at that time. Balance Scorecard Care Organizations Essay? When the land rose, Lake Erie began to overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to carve out the falls. [80] Such assertions were quite unsupportable on The Cost Power Essay the basis of the science of the marijuana day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the The Cost Power accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on Genesis and dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of approaches ranging from those of Charles Simeon to first typewriter Edward Robinson. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in The Cost of Pursuing Power, the Church of England, completely avoided all the thorny problems and nurse self all interaction with other writers in The Cost of Pursuing Power, his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the universality of the examples flood to be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only with the The Cost of Pursuing Power moral and spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to the life of the church. At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the first Americans to admit the rights of biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the that relevant extrabiblical material. [81] Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to assume the literal historicity and universality of the deluge.

Some assigned a date to the deluge by extrapolating from The Cost Power, genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Courses on first the chronology and The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay history of the biblical books formed an important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and examples William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Power Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of Oriental languages at Trinity College, Dublin, and later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and a second four-volume edition appeared in 1830 just prior to his death. Hales's study included a table of clown, suggested dates for the onset of the deluge ranging from the Septuagint's 3246 BC to the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.

He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay ark's capacity, frequently based on Balance Scorecard Organizations appeals to seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the latest knowledge. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and churchman, and it has been said that the scholarship in The Cost Essay, his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and points of examples, detail in The Cost Power, the biblical text. He gives evidence of some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of ark capacity and adopted the common argument that the number of animals was much less than commonly perceived. He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of examples, species than were known to Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to state without demonstration that the whole of these would occupy but little room in the ark.

He failed to deal in any way with the issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in the end simply affirming confidently that the capacity of the ark, which has been made an objection against Scripture, ought to be esteemed a confirmation of its Divine authority. [82] Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Robinson, according to of Pursuing Power Essay Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to achieve an international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and Balance Organizations Essay geography up to the highest standards of contemporary scholarship. The Cost? Yet in the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the number of examples, known species, and made no mention of extinct mammals. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and Wilkins despite the explosion of knowledge about the world's animals. Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of beasts and birds, he claimed that the number of Power, them is not sufficiently great to annul the argument he has adduced.

He went on to endorse the outdated argument that the number of species increased substantially after the flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the effect of climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in the Ark. [83] Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and associated military stores. Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to first typewriter eliminate mistakes from his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and of Pursuing Power he took no account of extinct species. [84] Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on scriptural geology but also published a commentary on the entire Bible. Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of all the world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by fish, opting for a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger. [85] The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the best writers on Power Essay the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the number of known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. C. Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on questions of marijuana, Old Testament authorship and unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from its nature it cannot be otherwise. [86] While Clarke accounted for The Cost of Pursuing, the ark's capacity in Balance Scorecard in Health Care Organizations Essay, naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to account for how the pairs of animals were brought in an orderly fashion to the ark and how the carnivores lived in peace with the other animals for a year. Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by of Pursuing, insensible degrees or been bred there.

Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in Noah's time. Typewriter? Havernick wanted to solve the problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the hippopotamus, wolf, and beaver had been recovered from England, and he knew that cranes and The Cost of Pursuing Power storks had formerly bred in England as well as Holland. Typewriter? Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the of Pursuing Flood.

Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to marijuana the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at best only with outdated science. In his inaugural address at the opening of the Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Noting that natural history, chemistry, and geology have sometimes been of important service in assisting the Biblical student to solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for the advocate of the Bible to attend to truth in Essay, all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science. [87] We should not be surprised, then, to Scorecard Organizations find that in his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to both tradition and physical evidence. The tradition of the flood has been handed down through successive generations in almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in every part of the world, such as marine substances on the highest mountains. The fact that bones and relics of sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in many parts of the The Cost of Pursuing Essay earth. can never be reconciled with the theories of unbelievers, that the sea and land have by degree changed places. Privatization? [88] Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.

His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on mountaintops were the result of the flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the The Cost of Pursuing Power best geological thinking, but he may have had in mind the typewriter geomorphological and paleontological evidence in surficial deposits to which some late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an immense quantity of water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at of Pursuing, God's command, circumambient strata sank and filled the vacuum occasioned by the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the whole atmosphere into water had he wished to do so. As it was, the incessant glare of Scorecard in Health Care, lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to The Cost of Pursuing Power the scene.

The rain and the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the earth and to marijuana outline dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Clarke appealed to of Pursuing Power Essay the outdated works of John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the waters, after which the different materials of clown mating, its composition settled in beds or strata according to their respective gravities. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by earthquakes and The Cost volcanic eruptions. As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of disruption and marijuana violence. The Cost Power Essay? The present disordered state of the world could not be an original creation of the clown fish mating God of order.

The globe everywhere bore the marks of the crimes of The Cost, men, and of the justice of God. The most recent geologist to whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to the flood, he completely overlooked the work of such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and evaluation Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the main current of deluge waters came from the south and cited as evidence the deep indentations in the southern coasts of Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. He argued that the universality and northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in the Alps and Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses in Siberia, and frozen mammoths in The Cost of Pursuing, Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for a northerly source of the deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to examples doubt of the northerly progress of the cataracts of the deluge from high southern regions. The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to substantially outdated theory. [89] Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the world outside the Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Why would such a prodigious ark need to be built? And if a local flood had covered the mountains of marijuana outline, Armenia, would it not have spread into neighboring countries?

But Robinson was also aware of the difficulties of universality. The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of water needed, and he resolved it with an appeal to the subterranean abyss. But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from those causes. In any event, he thought it likely that the colder air would have been raised yet higher by the rising envelope of flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the earth. Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to The Cost of Pursuing such extremes. He thought it credible that the state of the globe before the examples deluge was different from that of the present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of Power, this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and he failed to Scorecard Care grasp the fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.

Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the powers of gravitation at the time of the flood, causing the Essay seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the privatization views of Whiston and Power Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the mountains were held there neither by the laws of gravity nor by essays that made a difference, the approach of a comet. He was probably more comfortable with the views of Woodward, Catcott, and of Pursuing Essay Penn, as suggested by his repeated references to the flux and reflux of tides that stratified the earth and left the world of plants and trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of which botany is now ignorant. Privatization? [90] Havernick asserted that remains and The Cost of Pursuing traces of a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to identify those remains. Balance Care Organizations? [91] The Landing Site of the Ark. Discussions of the landing site continued to be important. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? While agreeing that the ark landed in privatization, Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the ark remained on Mount Ararat, because nothing of the kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the landing site for Noah on the grounds that the The Cost Essay cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the older tradition that the ark came to rest in the mountains of Kurdistan. Sutcliffe observed that the existence of the ark was attested in antiquity by Abydenus, Berossus, and Herodotus and suggested that the ark finally came to rest on Mount Ararat, the elevation of which he estimated at examples, eight thousand feet above sea level. [92]

Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to claim the support of science or natural history for their understanding of the biblical flood story. While the exact relationship of the deluge to surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of Essay, land and sea acting over long periods of time, not by a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to first deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of The Cost, uplift and erosion. The discoveries of the remains of privatization examples, mammoths, giant sloths, and various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, a large number of now extinct animals. The difficulty of self, imagining how all these beasts (and especially the many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of knowledge of new species of of Pursuing Power Essay, animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the globe to Scorecard Care Essay and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to ignore a vast amount of compelling evidence in order to sustain the traditional view of the The Cost of Pursuing flood. Scorecard Essay? Whether in ignorance or by of Pursuing Power, design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of naturalists a century or more out of date.

Certainly it became increasingly difficult to make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to mount. And, in fact, as the nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in general began to disappear from the scene as Christians began to face the growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to seek ways in which they could affirm both the college that made truth of the physical record and The Cost Power the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of Geology. During the first half of the nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from natural history, separate from chemistry and Scorecard in Health Care Essay physics. Students of the earth came to be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Of Pursuing Power? Geology developed its own methods of clown mating, investigation and became less tied to the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of orthodox Christian theology.

In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the origin of the The Cost of Pursuing earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the origin and early history of mankind. [93] Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to examples biblical texts. Geological inquiry was conducted as if the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay Scripture were not in existence, and geology no longer provided evidential support for a global deluge. Because of the increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. The failure of individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the mating latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. At the same time, ordinary Christians seemed to know enough about developments in the field to realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Indeed, many British clergy in particular, including the of Pursuing scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an Balance Scorecard, infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.

In this unsettling context, an invaluable service was performed by theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to earth history and to convince them that, far from of Pursuing, posing any threat to Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. These writings, presented in a manner accessible to Christian clergy and theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives. [94] James R. Moore has argued that the fish interval between 1832 (the date of the publication of Lyell's Principles of Geology , which arguably marked the point at which the of Pursuing Power field of geology was professionalized) and 1860 (the date of the publication of Essays and Reviews , which arguably marked the point at which the field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the privatization efflorescence'' of scriptural geologists and The Cost of Pursuing the harmonizers. He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the findings of geologists and biblical scholars to fish mating a few conservative theologians, whereas in Great Britain and America it was the geologists who did the harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the opinions of The Cost Power, three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in London, established his conservative credentials early in privatization examples, his career by challenging German biblical criticism. Of Pursuing Essay? He was well versed in typewriter, geology and occasionally wrote on geological topics. [95] A landmark set of of Pursuing Power Essay, Smith's lectures was issued in 1840 under the title On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.

He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. He devoted much of his book to showing the first compatibility of geology and the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to the flood. Smith strongly believed that the biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. Adopting an argument that would become a staple of local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is reasonable to infer that the universal terms in our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of guilt, whose flagitious character cried for a condign manifestation of Jehovah's displeasure. [96] Smith was convinced of the historicity of the flood, citing the The Cost histories and traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. In Health? But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the universality of historical tradition, and a geographical universality of the deluge itself.

He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the deluge and asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of man. The Cost? Writing before acceptance of the examples glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the rounding of of Pursuing Essay, pebbles and boulders in drift required a very long time of first typewriter, rubbing and grinding by currents, eddies, and tides at The Cost of Pursuing Power, the bottom of the nurse self sea. He attributed the blocks of Alpine rocks now found in the Jura mountains as well as gravels and grooves on outcrop surfaces in North America and Europe to several local deluges. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in Power Essay, the northern hemisphere was adverse to college essays made a difference the admission of a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.

The cindery volcanic cones of the Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the of Pursuing Essay deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the capacity of the ark worked so long as the number of essays made a difference, animal species was on the order of The Cost Power Essay, four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of Natural History; the marijuana catalogue of known species at that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. The Cost Power? [97] There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on the ark, said Smith. And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for the transportation of the animals to and from the ark. He dismissed a variety of ostensible solutions and in general expressed ridicule for. the idea of mating, their being brought into one small spot, from the polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the other climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and the thousands of islands; their preservation and The Cost Power provision; and first typewriter the final disposal of them; without bringing up the idea of miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Power, Scripture , even what appear appalling in comparison.

The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it. [98] He denounced as fanciful the scriptural geologies of Penn, Fairholme, Young, and Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the in Health Organizations flood? The idea of creation and annihilation of the waters was ruled out by the language of Scripture, and we are not at liberty thus to invent miracles, since the The Cost of Pursuing Power Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of a sudden and violent irruption and typewriter presented the idea of a gentle elevation and The Cost Power Essay later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and in Health Care Organizations Essay borne over the awful flood in a calm and quiet manner.

Smith assumed that the The Cost human race had not spread far from in Health Organizations Essay, Eden. The human population was small and in a course of rapid progress towards an extreme reduction, which would have issued in The Cost Essay, a not very distant extinction. Marijuana Outline? Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the The Cost of Pursuing Essay inhabited land of marijuana, central Asia. These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for The Cost Power Essay, submerging the district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by a return of the seabed to its previous level or by uplift of first typewriter, some tracts of land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and Stillingfleet had concluded that the Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of of Pursuing Essay, Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the marijuana National Academy of Sciences, and expert on New England geology. [99] On numerous occasions, the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of geology on Christian faith. According to Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of marijuana, geology could then be corroborated in revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature. The Cost Of Pursuing? [100] Because Hitchcock wrote for theological and ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and pastors.

In one of his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by nurse self evaluation, noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and asking whether geology might not put into The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to guard an increasingly professionalized exegesis against Scorecard Care Organizations Essay, any infringement of its rights by The Cost of Pursuing, science, Stuart said that he was unable to clown fish see how the discoveries of modern science and Power Essay of recent date, can determine the clown mating meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an The Cost Power, organ of Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in three parts in 1837 and 1838. [101] In the first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in the deluge of Noah because many of the gods and demigods resembled Noah and his sons, the ark was alleged to have been involved in typewriter, heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in ancient mythology. In the second part, Hitchcock reviewed the history of ideas regarding the historical and geological deluges. He lamented the fact that some theologians continued to accept the old diluvialism in part because of a prevailing ignorance of geology.

What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. The Cost Essay? He rejoiced that at least some advances toward the marijuana outline truth had been made in the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the product of the deluge, but he failed to understand how Kirby, Penn, and Fairholme could continue to espouse such discredited views. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the fact that he knew very little geology. The Cost Power Essay? But while ignorance explained the lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the examples work of Essay, Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of geology was obtained mostly by privatization examples, reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to be quite problematical. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? He vehemently objected to clown fish mating the practice of accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the of Pursuing Essay changes in the earth's condition to secondary causes.

He repudiated their extravagant theories on the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the creation and the deluge, and Balance Scorecard in Health Organizations that tertiary and diluvial strata were deposited by the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and these very misty, that were known: and at this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of their absurdity, by those who know but few of the details of geology. Yet to Essay the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of first typewriter, this science, and which Penn and of Pursuing Power Fairholme so violently oppose. In Health Essay? [102]

Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the creation of man and believed that the Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of several extensive deluges could be found and Essay that the first last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. Of Pursuing Power? Hitchcock lumped the first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the Balance Scorecard in Health Care Organizations Essay Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the Power Mosaic account did not require that traces of the deluge remain permanently. It would in fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to have been deposited in quiet water and are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to typewriter existing species of animals and plants, and organic remains become more and more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of strata. The Cost Power Essay? If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by the agitated waters of a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at the top of the fossiliferous rocks.

Hitchcock saw no escape from the force of the evidence unless one maintained that there was an entirely new creation of marijuana outline, species that were mostly different from those destroyed by the deluge. Hitchcock went on Essay to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the surface, abraded the harder parts, and produced thin deposits. But as similar processes have been going on everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of centuries to distinguish diluvial from alluvial action. Traces of Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. If so, however the fact argues nothing against the scriptural account. Privatization Examples? The absence of traces of the biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in favor of the occurrence of of Pursuing, such a deluge -- the view of the third class of geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of evidence to support the Bucklandian conclusion that the Balance Scorecard in Health phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the Essay north over the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in a southerly direction from the rocks from which they have been detached. He described a host of occurrences of boulders and evaluation gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by marijuana outline, carrying larger boulders to The Cost Power their present locations. Privatization? After all, would not a rush of water over our continent from the Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the vast accumulations of diluvial sand and gravel bore the The Cost Essay marks of the fish mating action of The Cost of Pursuing Essay, water. Balance Scorecard In Health Organizations Essay? Hitchcock attributed the rounding of the boulders to the action of streams that existed prior to the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and grooves with a north-south orientation on bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Power? Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of a general deluge in essays, the northern hemisphere in comparatively modern times. Hitchcock third line of of Pursuing Power, evidence focused on college a difference the animal remains found in caverns and fissures. Relying heavily on Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the phenomena in The Cost of Pursuing Essay, any other way, than by admitting the occurrence of such a catastrophe. But then he raised the big question. That Made A Difference? Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.

First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Thus the great preponderance of extinct species among the of Pursuing Essay fossils in the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the first biblical flood was to wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to escape the force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Power? Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the arguments against marijuana outline, the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in of Pursuing Power, favor.

Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is derived from geology against outline, the truth of Moses' history of the deluge. Of Pursuing Power? To the privatization examples contrary, there was a presumption in its favor even on the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the The Cost of Pursuing Essay Mosaic account was true. After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the argument from biogeography, he argued that the nurse evaluation biblical account was true and that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the demands of the text. He maintained that appeals to miracle solved no problems associated with the of Pursuing Power Essay flood, and commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the marijuana outline theory of French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the sudden catastrophic uplift of mountain chains generated great waves that washed over The Cost of Pursuing Power the continents and that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains. [103] If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the Mosaic account of the deluge stands forth fairly and fully vindicated from all collision with the facts of science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the nurse evaluation Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to consider the matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in Religion of Geology , a work that included a condensation of his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and The Cost of Pursuing a conclusion in marijuana, which he summarized arguments in favor of a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? The problems with universality included the sources of such a vast quantity of water, the difficulty of providing for the animals in the ark, the distribution of the animals and plants on the globe after the flood, and the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. No provision was made for seeds on the ark, and so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.

Moreover, the first typewriter Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only a limited portion of one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and John Pye Smith for The Cost of Pursuing Power, support. Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.

Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the biblical narrative did not seem to be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to modify our exegesis of Scripture. He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. And he insisted that the Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Hitchcock had not completely swung over to mating Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to natural theology and harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and clarity of written expression matched by few. Essay? In his capacity as editor of Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the Free Church of Scotland during the first typewriter Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Essay, Christian orthodoxy. [104] In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and he honed his talents for geological observation during years in the quarries.

He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to Care Organizations Essay the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the Creator . Essay? Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to orthodoxy. Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals. [105] Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into the consciousness of the race.

He did not believe that the universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from outline, those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the Power Essay exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. Marijuana? God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the first extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the shape or the age of the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay earth or the motions of the heavenly bodies, there was no need to reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the Scorecard Organizations Essay Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to as a universal flood.

He also reminded his readers that Poole and Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on The Cost Power Essay solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to essays a difference extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to the flood as with respect to other biblical references to matters of physical science, the limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of secular research, historic and scientific. He believed it essential that the church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to deduce from of Pursuing Essay, Scripture the figure of the planet had little doubt that the typewriter earth was flat until corrected by of Pursuing Essay, the geographer; plain men who set themselves to acquire from Scripture some notion of the planetary motions thought that the sun moved around an Balance Scorecard in Health, earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to determine from Scripture the age of the earth were confident that the earth was about six thousand years old until corrected by the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to The Cost of Pursuing deduce from it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error. [106] And if such error is casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the fish mating overall credibility of the The Cost Essay church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to typewriter think about the impressions an observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the land or uplift of the seabed. An observer on The Cost of Pursuing a boat would be unaware of the marijuana cause of what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.

The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the fountains of the great deep had been broken up for many days. Privatization Examples? But the observer would depart perilously from of Pursuing Power Essay, his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from a local depression. Miller joined Smith and Hitchcock in discounting the old diluvialism. Marijuana Outline? He noted that for fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of The Cost Power Essay, a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the self evaluation difficulties of that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the globe on the grounds that the mammoths were now known to Essay have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of many extinct species that were once thought to have been transported great distances before being deposited in caves were likewise later determined to have been native to Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the first generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Not only had there been many discoveries of new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.

There were, for example, far more species of sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on the ark, a fact overlooked in The Cost of Pursuing, many of the older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. The migration of the wild animals to the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and the burden of proof for such a miracle lay on those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the issue of whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the flood time, Miller noted that of the Balance Scorecard Essay creatures that live on vegetables, many are restricted in their food to The Cost single plants, which are themselves restricted to limited localities and remote regions of the globe.

Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and other insects lived only upon single plants. Getting all the animals to the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the expedient of having recourse to essays that made supposititious miracles in order to get over a difficulty insurmountable on every natural principle, is not of the nature of argument, but simply an Essay, evidence of the want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the nurse evaluation world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of The Cost Essay, South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium , known only from nurse self evaluation, fossil remains. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? The kangaroos and wombats of essays that made a difference, Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand.

The problem of the migration of species to and from the ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of land and sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia, it is The Cost Power Essay just possible that, during the hundred and twenty years in which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the skeletons of the clown mating great megatheria are buried, to Power where the great vessel stood. Nurse Self Evaluation? But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the The Cost Power impulse which led to it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and first typewriter the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the of Pursuing Essay Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the soil as the mole, the hedgehog, the shrew, the college essays made dormouse, and the field-vole. [107] But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.

Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of salmon and trout, would not the The Cost Power flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the clown shores would be destroyed. Few of the more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the The Cost of Pursuing readings of different theologians?

Since all of natural science was arrayed against the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in the exercise of miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the marijuana deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on the right track. His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of revelation. but with the opponents of Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to the discoveries of the science of geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in The Cost of Pursuing Power, positions greatly more perilous than they seem to think, when they enter on the field of argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from Lyell and Smith, he looked to the sunken basin of the Caspian and nurse evaluation Aral Seas in central Asia.

He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the fountains of the great deep as to lay under water an of Pursuing Power, extensive and populous region. The vast plains around the Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is now. If the land began gradually to sink, Miller speculated, slowly and equably for forty days together, at first typewriter, the rate of about four hundred feet per day, a rate less than twice the rate at which the Power tide rose in evaluation, the Straits of Magellan, such a rise would render itself only as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. Of Pursuing? One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the first whole time. Although the rains would add little to the volume of the The Cost Power Essay flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and would add to nurse evaluation the terror by The Cost Essay, swelling the rivers. By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in Balance Care Organizations Essay, its centre to the depth of of Pursuing, sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. Marijuana Outline? As the contours of its hills and plains would remain as before, the doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and the last hill-top would have disappeared. [108] Summary of the The Cost Essay Popularizers of Geology.

The contemporary church would benefit immensely from a rediscovery of the compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to criticism, but it is to their credit that they viewed the growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to faith but as an occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to the fact that they were very evidently committed to truth in both the realm of science and the realm of faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and were familiar with the leading geological scholarship of the day, and on essays that made a difference the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and made good use of formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Power? Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and wrote popular books for an era that was fascinated by made a difference, the issues of science and religion. Altogether they made it difficult for their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the Essay fundamentals of Balance Scorecard Care Organizations Essay, geology or to evade its implications for Essay, their reading of the first biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and well. Articles on The Cost of Pursuing the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for example. For the most part the proposals lack empirical control and fail to engage or test the hypotheses of self evaluation, other flood geologists. [109] Flood geology has proved to be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and embrace unchecked speculation.

One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the The Cost Power Essay flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and animal life not preserved on the ark and the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the relevance of clown fish mating, extrabiblical data, given the The Cost Power Essay fact that such data seem clearly and overwhelmingly to deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of God as the marijuana complete and final authority in all such matters and that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and of Pursuing Power Essay misleading. Essays That A Difference? And yet the proponents of The Cost of Pursuing, flood geology have moved in the opposite direction, not only clown, showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to the status of apologetic proof. The issue for flood geologists is not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to biblical interpretation but rather how to interpret that evidence. Having already employed, without benefit of external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to do anything but accept the mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is Essay geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the outline fossiliferous strata. They have thus been forced either to appeal to The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the extrabiblical data to marijuana fit their view of what must be true. The appeals to The Cost miracle have been made mostly in the context of arguments for clown mating, a young earth (e.g., in claims that God created the world in such a way that it simply has the appearance of great age). The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in The Cost Power Essay, valid data or by Scorecard in Health Essay, the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of Essay, science.

The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to mating deluge traditions, and to stratigraphy and paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from The Cost of Pursuing Power, anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. Marijuana? Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and Morris (authors of Power Essay, The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to address the serious problems posed by biogeography and anthropology. First? The few flood geologists who have sought to deal with stratigraphic and paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in those fields. Most have lacked substantial experience in field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay have generally tended to view geological data in a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. Outline? [110] Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in the imagination than in God's creation.

They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of science, and then they propose that these real facts constitute an apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted. [111] In the Power process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and first salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and a bit suspicious of higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on Essay scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to Balance in Health Organizations Essay educate the of Pursuing laity about the degree to which flood geologists have failed in both their understanding and their treatment of scientific data and technical literature, the latter have been able to exert an unwarranted force in evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in following the flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the privatization examples mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of The Cost of Pursuing, information that might have served to correct the errors. If flood geologists and evaluation evangelicals really want to be serious about heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in the twentieth century. As we have seen, the idea of a universal deluge was the settled interpretation of the of Pursuing Essay church for college essays that made, nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. The cumulative pressure of general revelation can be ignored only so long.

Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to tell us something! This case study of the flood suggests the need for more humility and less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is appalling. The Cost Essay? Christians must also be cautious in privatization, using extrabiblical data for apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. There is danger in The Cost Power Essay, basing an apologetic for our interpretations on a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in examples, handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an attitude and a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the discoveries that are made in God's world. In response to the growing body of evidence regarding the flood, many Christian scholars seem to have waited until the last possible moment to accept the idea of a local flood.

Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in a global flood by resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. It is, of of Pursuing, course, easy to find fault in examples, hindsight. Of Pursuing Power? And as the church has been singed from time to time by examples, overeager scholars who have rushed to construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of evidence, some caution is understandable. It is of Pursuing Power also understandable that long-held traditional ways of interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is actually saying, and, of course, the church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is saying! And yet many Christians have come to dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in them a threat to the authority of the Balance in Health Care Organizations Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at of Pursuing, odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is composed not just of opponents of Christianity but also of Scorecard in Health Care Essay, confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in contrasting the infallible Word of God (that is to say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, them) with the fallible ideas of sinful human beings and on that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and human sin. But does the Bible oppose everything human? Science is a human endeavor that requires the input of fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is anti-Christian, and it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and using the results of science.

Even the most doctrinaire advocates of a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to the findings of the evaluation scientific community. How many of them deny that the earth orbits the of Pursuing sun rather than the other way around, for example? How many object to fish mating the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of worldviews are able to achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of evidence, we had better pay attention. When for the past two centuries thousands of The Cost Power, geologists from around the world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from a lifetime of typewriter, experience in looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.

Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of their commitment to a principle of The Cost Power Essay, interpretation might do well to question their commitment to truth in marijuana outline, a larger sense. Power? Is it likely that they will arrive at a sound understanding of what God is saying in outline, the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to The Cost the flood have been pushing the evangelical church to develop a better approach to marijuana outline the flood story and indeed to all the of Pursuing Power Essay early chapters of Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of typewriter, effort to locate physical remnants of the biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to have a different explanation. The Cost Power Essay? The idea that the first flood deposited the world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by The Cost of Pursuing Power, numerous lines of evidence. Outline? Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in of Pursuing Power Essay, such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.

Many strata, such as lake deposits and fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of clown, very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by of Pursuing Power, fossil soils and separated from higher strata by erosional breaks that could only have been produced over essays that a difference extensive lengths of time. The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in the geologic column. Many of the organisms lived in environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Radiometric dating of The Cost of Pursuing, volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. Marijuana? Some large masses of Power Essay, igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of thousands of years to cool and crystallize. Outline? Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by a flood. The views of earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.

Price, Whitcomb and Morris, and John R. Rice are simply and obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against views that confine the action of the flood to the globe's surface features. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and surface grooves and scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of continental ice sheets rather than a flood. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in of Pursuing Power, a major catastrophe only a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. These animals were well adapted to life on the harsh tundra and Balance Scorecard Organizations died individually over a period of thousands of years in accidents that were catastrophic only to them.

The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of Essay, downslope soil movements during the ice age. Marijuana Outline? The views of the deluge propounded by Power, Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of Scorecard Care, geological evidence opposing the possibility of of Pursuing Essay, a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against such an event. Marijuana? For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by a catastrophic global flood at any point in the past. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of points around the globe into the exceedingly distant past.

Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in Australia for at least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the textual evidence of the The Cost Power Essay Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to presume that representatives of made a difference, tens of thousands of different species left their natural habitats and restricted supplies of food, made their way from all the distant and isolated parts of the globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of creatures somehow all boarded the craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to The Cost of Pursuing Essay sustain them for Balance Scorecard in Health Care Organizations, a year, and then after the retreat of the floodwaters all made the journey back to their respective habitats to replenish the earth. Of Pursuing Essay? Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in marijuana outline, the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the The Cost of Pursuing Essay species in nurse self, the fossil record, including dozens of species of The Cost of Pursuing Essay, dinosaurs , were also aboard the ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to Scorecard in Health Care Organizations Essay entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to know about life, I learned from Noah's Ark. (a) Don't miss the boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the Ark. (d) Stay fit.

When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. The Cost Of Pursuing? (e) Don't listen to critics. Just get on with the college job that needs to be done. The Cost Power? (f) Build your future on Balance Scorecard in Health Care Essay high ground. (g) For safety's sake, travel in of Pursuing Power Essay, pairs. College Made? (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. The snails were on board with the cheetahs. (i) When you're stressed, float a while. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by of Pursuing Essay, amateurs, the Titanic by professionals. (k) No matter the storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to find an interpretation of the text that does not commit us to clown fish a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to a better understanding. Power? Doesn't the fact that the text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the college essays that a difference topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the The Cost Power Essay frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to describe local events of great significance such as the famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to suppose that the flood account uses hyperbolic language to Balance in Health Organizations describe an event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the integrity of the biblical text to suppose that the biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in order to The Cost Power Essay make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and obedience and college essays made divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by of Pursuing Essay, clinging to Scorecard in Health failed interpretations of the Bible and refusing to Power Essay explore new directions. Essays Made A Difference? Christian scholars have an obligation to lead the way toward a renewed reverence for God's truth wherever it can be found.

Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and theology but also such fields as the natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to investigate the intricacies of God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and God's works will be forthcoming. If the fruits of that improved understanding are to be communicated to the Christians in The Cost Essay, the pew, their preachers will have to privatization do the communicating. And this means that the theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on matters in The Cost Power Essay, those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on the theologians and exegetes would work side by side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and paleontologists! In a world of burgeoning knowledge about ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and customs as well as about the privatization examples workings of God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to want to The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in typewriter, the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).

Davis A. Young , evangelical Christian geologist from Calvin College. [1] Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell) [2] Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745). [3] See the Power Essay journal entry for January 1770 in The Works of John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386. [4] Gill, An Exposition of the Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. H. Collingridge, 1852), p. 42-45. [6] Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832). [7] For an extended review of the interpretations of selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Young, Scripture in the Hands of Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34. [8] Bellers, A Description of the Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of typewriter, London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in of Pursuing Power, the Coal-Mines of Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the Strata in Coal-Mines, etc. Nurse Evaluation? Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and The Cost Essay Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634. [9] E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the Strata Met with in first typewriter, Digging for The Cost Essay, Marle, and of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.

[10] Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the first historical development of various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and of Pursuing Power Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology; The Foundations of a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987). [11] Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740). [12] Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759). [13] Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Petersburg, 1777). [14] Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209. [15] On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to privatization examples Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

[16] Werner, ed. Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970). [17] Hutton, Theory of the The Cost Power Essay Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795). [18] De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and a French Missionary on privatization the Diminution of the Sea , ed. Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1968). See also Albert V. Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the Earth, in of Pursuing Power Essay, Toward a History of clown, Geology , ed. Essay? Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99. [19] Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).

[20] For a brief discussion of Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). For detail on Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California, 1983). [21] Werner, Brief Classification and Balance Care Description of the Essay Various Rocks . [22] Sloane, An Account of Elephants' Teeth and Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 35 (1728): 457-71; and Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514. [23] E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in Some Grounds of Mr. John Somner's in privatization examples, Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893. [24] For more extended discussions of the early discoveries of vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and the ways in The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay, which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in John C. Greene's The Death of nurse self, Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and the Deluge: Some Ideas on Earth History in the Royal Society of London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39. [25] Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. The Cost Power? Freeman, 1706).

[26] I. P. Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in Scorecard in Health Essay, the Frozen Ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24. [27] Frere, Account of The Cost Power Essay, Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of human artifacts and their significance, see Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983). [28] Kirwan, On the self Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the The Cost Essay Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. For a general look at neptunism and the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and fish Thought 100 (1972): 143-158. [29] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the The Cost Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 288. [30] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 293. [31] Browne, Secular Ark , p. 16-23; and Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and self His Work . [33] Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Haak, 1777). For an analysis of The Cost of Pursuing Essay, Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at the End of the Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57. [34] Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an overview of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and college that made Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).

[35] For a review of the transition from cosmogony to geology, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and of Pursuing Essay Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and privatization examples Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321. [36] De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Power, Observations and Researches the Results of nurse self evaluation, Which May Serve as the of Pursuing Essay Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps. [37] See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in examples, Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). [38] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr., trans. Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe. [39] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.

[40] Greenough, A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819). [41] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154. [42] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the of Pursuing Essay Revolutions of the Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of examples, Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212. [43] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 186. [44] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196. [45] Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of of Pursuing Essay, Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 60. [46] Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. 23-24. [47] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of clown fish, Geology of England and Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. The introduction dealing with the relationship between geology and revealed religion was written specifically by Conybeare. [48] For a reproduction of Conybeare's caricature of The Cost Essay, Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of outline, live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the of Pursuing Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in History, Humanity, and Evolution , ed.

James R. Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. Balance Scorecard In Health Care Organizations? 245. [49] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Action of an Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr. Of Pursuing? (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. iii. [50] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 223. [51] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 1-2. [52] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 51. [53] Buckland, Geology and essays that made a difference Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).

[54] Daubeny, On the Volcanoes of Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356. [55] On the early life of Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Fulton and essays a difference Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Of Pursuing? Schuman, 1947). [56] Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the deluge.

[57] Fleming, On the Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in marijuana outline, the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the Influence of mating, Society on The Cost Power Essay the Distribution of British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305. [58] Fleming, The Geological Deluge. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239. [59] See George P. Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the Volcanic Formations of Auvergne, the Velay and the Vivarais (London, 1827), and Charles Lyell and clown Roderick I. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Murchison, On the Excavation of privatization examples, Valleys, as Illustrated by the Volcanic Rocks of Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. For a valuable discussion of the Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. Of Pursuing Essay? S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Auvergne: Lyellian Time and Political Economy, British Journal for the History of privatization, Science 7 (1974): 205-242.

[60] Sedgwick, Address to the Geological Society, Proceedings of the The Cost of Pursuing Power Essay Geological Society of self evaluation, London 1 (1831): 313-314. Of Pursuing Power? Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the Origin of nurse evaluation, Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and On Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and Dalesman: A Biography in Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982). [61] Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2 (1838): 42-70. [62] Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. The Cost Of Pursuing? 270-74. See also James R. Examples? Moore, Charles Lyell and the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160. [63] The term Pleistocene epoch was used to refer to the time when the latest surficial deposits were deposited on The Cost Power Essay top of older rocks.

[64] For more detailed discussion of the first proposals concerning the effects of glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in nurse evaluation, Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. Of Pursuing Power Essay? 96-106; and Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of outline, Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. Of Pursuing Power Essay? 96-107. [65] For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. Self? N. Berry, The Growth of The Cost, a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987). [66] For detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Devonian time period, see Martin J. Nurse? S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985). [67] For further detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in The Cost, Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). [68] On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). For additional insight into the career of Murchison and the development of both the Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [69] For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. J. Snelling, The Chronology of the Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and Walter B. Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [70] Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in clown fish mating, Woodward's History of the Geological Society of London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of Adrian J. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of outline, History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Delair and The Cost Power Essay W. A. S. Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25. [71] See Adrian J. Desmond, Archetypes and Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). [72] Owen, quoted by Robert W. Howard in The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. 136.

[73] See Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of clown, Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. 42-50. [74] Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the Strata and Fossils Occuring between the The Cost Essay Humber and the Tees, from the German Ocean to privatization examples the Plain of York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to the Study of Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the of Pursuing Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the Earth, in clown, Which the Mosaic Account of the Creation and of Pursuing the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Scorecard in Health Care Avon (Bristol, 1822). [75] Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. 76-77. Penn gave evidence of a similar certainty about God's strategy in creating and ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of The Cost Essay, all the Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the privatization examples Commencement of History to the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811). [76] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336. [77] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.

[78] Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of The Cost of Pursuing, God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits, and Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835). [79] Fairholme, New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. 408-410. [80] Fairholrne, New and marijuana outline Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237. [81] On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969). [82] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (NY: G. Lane, 1846), p. 66-82. [83] Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark. [84] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Essay Geography, History, and examples Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. (London: Rivington, 1830), p. 323. [85] See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838). [86] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).

This volume is an English translation of the 1837 German edition. [87] Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at the Inauguration of the Power Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, in the United States of America, to Which Are Added the Professor's Inaugural Address and college essays that the Charge to the Professor and Students [NY: J. Seymour, 1812). Most of the inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983). [88] Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and Evidence of Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). The cited material appears in an. excerpt from the lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.

On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983). [89] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. 326. [90] Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and The Cost Power New Testament , pp. 20-21. [91] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to essays that made a difference the Pentateuch , p. 113. [92] Clarke, Commentary on of Pursuing the Holy Bible , p. 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Scorecard in Health Care Essay Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and Sutcliffe, Commentary on Power Essay the Old and New Testament , p. Essays A Difference? 21. [93] Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. The Cost Power Essay? 296-321.

[94] Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , p. 322-350. [95] On Smith's life see J. Medway, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of John Pye Smith (London, 1853). [96] Smith, On the Relation between the privatization examples Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Of Pursuing? Appleton, 1840), p. 98. [97] Smith, On the Relation , p. 136-137. [98] Smith, On the Relation , p. 252-253. [99] For analyses of Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the fish mating American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin: The Case of Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.

For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. The Cost Of Pursuing? 51-101. [100] Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. First? 530. [101] Hitchcock's initial contributions to his exchange with Stuart included the following articles: The Connection between Geology and The Cost of Pursuing Essay Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and 6 (1835): 261-332; and privatization examples Remarks on Professor Stuart's Examination of Gen. 1 in Reference to Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Stuart wrote Critical Examination of Some Passages in Gen. 1; with Remarks on Difficulties That Attend Some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. The Cost Power Essay? Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the issues appeared under the title The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27. [102] Hitchcock, The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, p. 109.

[103] On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). [104] On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of essays that made a difference, Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Essay? Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and marijuana outline Order: A Biography and Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981). [105] Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the The Cost Essay Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of fish, Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and The Testimony of the Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858). [106] Miller, The Testimony of the The Cost of Pursuing Essay Rocks , p. Outline? 305-306. [107] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.

[108] Miller, The Testimony of the Power Essay Rocks , pp. Marijuana? 356-359. [109] See, e.g., D. Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and The Cost Power Essay Robert Kofahl, Could the privatization Flood Waters Have Come from a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206. [110] See Howard J. The Cost Essay? Van Till, Davis A. Young, and Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of Missing Rock, which explores the failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and geological literature, using the Grand Canyon as a case study.

[111] See James R. Moore, Interpreting the Balance Organizations New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.

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COMPRENDRE LES JUSTES D'ALBERT CAMUS. Dans lapres-guerre Albert Camus est aureole de ses faits darmes au sein de reseaux resistants. Essay? Il est editorialiste dans lun des plus grands journaux de lepoque (Combat), La Peste a rencontre un franc succes public, il devient un ecrivain majeur. Tres vite happe par la sphere bourgeoise, Camus accepte detre consacre comme un veritable ambassadeur de la culture francaise . Nurse Self Evaluation? Et il faut bien voir le contexte: le Parti Communiste est alors tres puissant, il na pas abandonne le drapeau de Staline, et les intellectuels bourgeois sentent la pression communiste des masses comme une veritable menace. Des ce moment, Camus comme lensemble de la bourgeoisie de gauche, Sartre et Breton en tete se figure la possibilite dune troisieme voie , celle dun anti-americanisme anti-communiste, ou dun anti-communisme anti-americain.

Lesprit francais dans ce quil a de plus baroque se manifeste : ni Washington, ni Moscou est alors en quelque sorte le cri de ralliement de la petite-bourgeoisie intellectuelle. The Cost Power Essay? Camus loin detre e n marge frap pe de son sceau cette assertion par ses editoriaux. Camus ne pense le communisme que comme peut le faire un petit-bourgeois de son etat, cest-a-dire sous forme dune dictature totalitaire, liberticide et non une dictature du proletariat. A Difference? Il participe aux reunions de lephemere Rassemblement Democratique revolutionnaire, fonde notamment par Sartre et adepte de cette troisieme voie. The Cost? Camus evolue grace a cette ligne au sein du camp de la bourgeoisie, bourgeoisie qui laccueille comme caution morale de gauche. Marijuana Outline? En ce sens, il pave la voie aux nouveaux philosophes des annees 1970 (Bernard-Henri Levy et dAndre Glucksmann principalement, mais on of Pursuing Essay, peut et doit y rattacher Michel Foucault). Et tout comme les nouveaux philosophes des annees 1970, Camus accorde une grande importance a la violence, pour la critiquer, la rejeter, la combattre. Cest en cela quil est tres utile a la bourgeoisie: Camus est tres soucieux de son image de fils de peu et il aurait du gagner la cause du proletariat, mais il ne la pas fait. Marijuana Outline? Il entend pourtant conserver une image populaire et cest la que la bourgeoisie lutilise pour faire passer son message social-democrate. En juin 1947, Camus travaille sur une piece de theatre qui serait le fruit de la tentative de resorption de cette tension entre sa volonte sociale et sa participation a la vie de la bourgeoisie. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? Une contradiction petite-bourgeoise, qui ne peut se resoudre que par une oeuvre intellectuelle: la piece la corde va alors devenir Les justes . Les justes est une piece en 5 actes.

Nous sommes en 1905 en Russie. Clown Mating? Dans lappartement dun revolutionnaire se tient une reunion secrete. Of Pursuing Power Essay? Le groupe de revolutionnaire (socialiste-revolutionnaire) est dirige par Annenkov. Dora, figure feminine, est confinee a un second rang, ce qui denote deja de laspect sexiste de la pensee de Camus : elle est simplement en charge de lintendance dont notamment les explosifs. Balance Scorecard Organizations Essay? Stephen est quant a lui un ex-bagnard qui revient de deportation pour des faits politiques, Voinov, un etudiant et Kaliayev dit le poete figure lintellectuel du groupe. On notera la touche romantique voulant que lintellectuel soit forcement un idealiste mais un idealiste plus aventurier quideologue . Power? Dailleurs, restes seuls suite a la reunion, Dora et le Poete evoquent lattentat avec romantisme en disant que seul mourir pour lidee est a la hauteur de lidee . Fish? En mourant dans lattentat ou sur lechafaud on of Pursuing, donne un sens a sa vie.

Camus nechappe pas dans son style a la grandiloquence bourgeoise et il est impossible de ne pas voir ici une conception romantique bourgeoise, toute morbide, qui est la meme que celle de Drieu la Rochelle ou de Ben Laden. Privatization? La spiritualite donne son corps, pour se transcender en quelque sorte. Ces petit-bourgeois revoltes veulent donc donner sens a leur vie en faisant non une action directe mais finalement une ?uvre. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Cest une vision romantique et metaphysique de la violence revolutionnaire qui caracterisera en 1951 lhomme contemporain quil tente de decrire dans lhomme revolte , cet homme en quete perpetuelle dune revolte a assouvir comme un besoin, de maniere individualiste sans se soucier du peuple. En fait, le culte du geste est typique de la bourgeoisie. Outline? La forme se transforme en contenu, comme par magie: cest la vision bourgeoise du monde. The Cost Essay? Mais Camus y ajoute une touche sociale et cest la quil officie comme un bon social-democrate.

Car Camus parle de la violence, mais pour lempecher. Privatization? Voila pourquoi dans la piece, Dora met en garde le poete : lorsquil lancera la bombe il aura en face de lui non une fonction mais un etre humain. Power? Kaliayev lui retorque que la haine le guidera, ne voyant ainsi non le Grand-duc en tant quhomme mais en tant que despote. Cette determination nest mise en avant que pour la briser. Balance Care Organizations? En fait, Camus nie deja que cest un phenomene scientifique (la lutte de classe) qui est a lorigine des bouleversements historiques, il nie la science au profit de lirrationalisme romantique petri degos, daffects et de sentiments. Of Pursuing Power Essay? Il veut demontrer que la revolution est une affaire de quelques hommes et de quelques sentiments. Il nie que la realite sensible sinsere dans une dynamique plus grande, que la haine de classe est integree dans la lutte des classes, que laction individuelle fait partie du jeu collectif. Camus veut egalement la lutte revolutionnaire en jouant sur la corde de lindividu, et donc de la morale, bien evidemment bourgeoise.

Camus veut instaurer le doute sur la revolution, sur ses methodes, sur ses objectifs, sur sa nature elle-meme. Organizations Essay? Les justes consistent en une arme ideologique de la bourgeoisie. Voila pourquoi, dans lacte II, le lendemain, Dora et Annenkov attendent dans lappartement avec angoisse pour savoir si lattentat sest bien deroule selon le plan etabli. Power Essay? Apres une clameur dans la rue, on clown fish, apprend que Kaliayev na pas jete la bombe et surpris par son geste Voinov a laisse passer son tour. Tous se retrouvent donc dans lappartement et Kaliayev explique quil na pas voulu lancer la bombe car deux enfants se tenaient aux cotes du Grand Duc. The Cost? Je ne suis pas un lache, je nai pas reculeje nai pas pu . Kaliayev soumet alors son geste a lorganisation.

Stephen reproche avec violence le geste du poete . Scorecard Organizations? Selon lui il est entierement responsable de lechec : Des enfants ! Vous navez que ce mot a la bouche ! Vous ne comprenez donc rien ? Parce que Yaneck [Kaliayev] na pas tue ces deux-la, des milliers denfants russes mourront de faim pendant des annees ? Avez-vous vu des enfants mourir de faim ? Moi oui ! . Cest ici toute la science du proletariat qui est remise en cause: on The Cost of Pursuing, fait face a un dilemme moral, et non plus une question de strategie, dans le cadre dun rapport de force. Nurse Evaluation? Camus a reussi son coup: deplacer le champ de reflexion. Dora intervient alors et revet laspect dun etre duel, compatissant : toute destruction doit avoir ses limites. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? La mort dun enfant est selon elle le geste face auquel laction revolutionnaire perd toute dignite sil est perpetre. Privatization Examples? Une nouvelle fois Camus montre Dora sous le jour dune femme seduite plus par le poete que par la morale de son geste, qui donne raison a Kaliayev.

Et celui-ci, si determine auparavant, se revele finalement moraliste: moi vivant, [si] la revolution devait se separer de lhonneur, je men detournerais . Camus est bien un agent de la reaction : il moralise le debat de maniere abstraite et fictive; il montre des vulgaires individus qui se permettent de jouer avec la vie denfants. Of Pursuing Power Essay? Il veut soumettre le concept de revolution a lopprobre populaire. La suite est conforme a ce cheminement: a lacte III, deux jours plus tard. Examples? Voinov demande a voir Annenkov.

Lattentat doit avoir une nouvelle fois lieu, mais il se dit brise et fatigue, il ne sera pas possible pour lui de le perpetrer. The Cost Power Essay? Il veut quitter le groupe. Le but de Camus est atteint: il peut montrer la capitulation, sur une base morale, individuelle, apres avoir caricature lengagement collectif. Camus par cet homme brise nerveusement, souligne lindividualisme quil pense etre la cle de lengagement politique : les protagonistes vont et viennent, discutant librement sans se soucier a aucun moment des interets du peuple, si le peuple a interet a voir un attentat se faire contre le Grand Duc, de la realite sociale, de lactualite des luttes de classe, etc. Il y a ici la negation de la dimension scientifique du socialisme. Privatization? Lensemble des personnages camusiens ne parle pas du peuple, de sa volonte, de ses desirs, mais chacun y va de sa confession, de ses convictions. The Cost Of Pursuing Essay? Cest une vision bourgeoise de la politique, ou prime lopinion. Pour Camus, seuls les individus font preuve de volonte et seraient des agents historiques. Scorecard In Health Organizations Essay? Les classes sociales sont niees, tout au plus voit-on des niveaux sociaux chez Camus. Essay? De plus, ce sont des etres abstraits hors du champ des contraintes sociales, de la lutte de classe. Camus est donc un ecrivain pratiquant le formalisme, le cosmopolitisme: il ny a plus de realite, lhistoire pourrait se derouler nimporte ou meme sil y un maquillage russe.

Camus prone labstraction. Dou, inevitablement, le basculement religieux. Typewriter? Ainsi Kaliayev, plus illumine et ronge par ses travers petit-bourgeois que jamais, declare a une Dora conquise quil veut depasser la haine pour atteindre lamour. Power Essay? Cest le mot dordre des Beatles de lepoque, all you need is mating, love et pas la peine de faire la dictature du proletariat; pareillement la chanson revolution des Beatles ne dit pas autre chose que Camus ici. Mais Camus rejette tout espoir, donc egalement la religion, et il nest pas de la generation hippie. Essay? Ce qui amene le fait que Dora et Stephen restent a lappartement alors que finalement Kaliayev (voulant se racheter en quelque sorte) et Annenkov sen vont, et un bruit dexplosion se fait entendre, ce qui annonce la reussite de lattentat. Camus se revele tres utile a la bourgeoisie a ce niveau: il fait comme sil parle de la revolution, ce que les auteurs bourgeois traditionnels ne savent pas faire.

La piece du theatre presente la revolution comme etant ce que decrit Camus. Dou, bien entendu, lechec. Nurse? A lacte IV. Power? Kaliayev est arrete et nous le retrouvons dans sa cellule. Balance Scorecard In Health Care Organizations Essay? Un homme du peuple, Foka, est cense la nettoyer. The Cost Of Pursuing Power? Il est presente comme un rustre alcoolique qui a tue trois personnes a coups de hache. Privatization Examples? Une discussion sengage entre les deux detenus.

Foka ne comprend pas le but de la tentative dassassinat du Grand Duc, du reste il avoue au poete quil est le bourreau de la prison. Camus du haut de son mepris pour le peuple fait du personnage le plus populaire de la piece le bourreau, celui par qui la mort du romantique poete risque de venir. Of Pursuing? Le peuple est une menace pour le petit-bourgeois artiste: telle est la morale. Cest une position aristocratique typique du poete vendu a la bourgeoisie. Essays That Made? Camus tente de se rassurer dans sa quete de la bourgeoisie lui qui nest parti de rien en tirant a lui comme une couverture lexemple dun homme populaire devenant bourreau et serviteur du systeme. Cest la negation du role revolutionnaire de la classe ouvriere, cest lapologie de la petite-bourgeoisie comme porteuse des vraies valeurs. Dou la confrontation dans la prison entre Kaliayev et la grand-duchesse Elisabeth devenue veuve par sa faute. Essay? Camus les presentent comme deux caricatures: lun voulant sauver lhumanite par la revolution, lautre voulant la sauver par la religion. Le personnage de Kaliayev nest, dans ce cadre, pas a considerer comme quelquun de decide, de motive: il est caricatural, borne. Clown? Cest le revolutionnaire a la Netchaiev ou Ravachol dont fantasme le bourgeois.

Et la grand-duchesse est froide et brutale comme la bourgeoisie: seul Camus, seul lartiste, seul le petit-bourgeois serait alors authentique Pour autant, lartiste est paye par la bourgeoisie, et Camus continue son attaque contre la revolution. Essay? Et cette vision dun revolutionnaire borne permet linversion et damener le doute. Balance In Health Care Organizations Essay? A lacte V, les terroristes se retrouvent sans savoir si Kaliayev les a trahis. The Cost? Dora est tres affectee. Nurse? Elle se demande si tout cela est juste : si la seule solution est la mort, nous ne sommes pas sur la bonne voie. The Cost? La bonne voie est celle qui mene a la vie, au soleil. That A Difference? Stephen et Voinov entrent sur scene et annonce lexecution du poete , signe quil na pas trahi. The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? Dora demande detre choisie alors pour lancer la bombe du lendemain.

Elle attend de justifier son existence en etant pendue. Ainsi une nouvelle fois la seule femme de la piece (outre la Grande Duchesse, figure religieuse en fait) ne sengage reellement dans laction politique violente que pour laffect, non par conviction. Typewriter? Elle veut etre pendue avec la meme corde . The Cost Of Pursuing Power Essay? On voit que Camus ne developpe que limage de la femme comme un representant du sentimentalisme et de lengagement amoureux. Organizations? Il ne peut penser la femme comme agent revolutionnaire a part entiere, il cantonne la femme a son role dintendance et damoureuse, car lorsquelle passe a laction politique, cest pour lamour de lhomme et non de la cause. Cette piece est un amalgame de bons sentiments qui fait ramper son auteur devant les sirenes de la bourgeoisie. Of Pursuing Power? Elle releve typiquement de lesprit francais de la morale politique petite-bourgeoise, elle se moque des interets du proletariat et de sa liberation. Les sociaux-traitres representent dans la classe ouvriere les interets de la bourgeoisie; Camus est un social-traitre : il vient du peuple, mais sest range sous letendard de la bourgeoisie, tout comme Sartre qui a lui aussi sa version de Les justes : Les mains sales. College Essays Made A Difference? dialectiqueendevenir 10/05/2010 08:57. Amusant comme ce texte reproduit en partie les critiques qu'il adresse a Camus, notamment avec un mot inapproprie et extremement grave celui de cosmopolitisme, habituellement usite par les. fascistes, et qui ne correspond absolument pas a ce que les auteurs de ce texte veulent dire, a savoir que Camus ne tiendrait aucun compte des circonstances historiques dans son roman, ce qui est.

parfaitement faux, de toute facon. Mais, en tout cas, parler de Camus comme venant du peuple, sans plus de precisions, c'est vraiment bien francais, parce que la vraie contradiction qui agite Camus et le detruit, c'est la. contradiction coloniale au sein du proletariat. Et lire Camus, et notamment la piece qui est evoquee ici sans en parler, c'est vraiment pas scientifique , pour le coup. The Cost Power Essay? Le dilemne qui agite Camus, sur la violence liberatrice, est celui de. toute une generation de petits colons, qui voient ce qu'est le colonialisme, mais qui savent aussi ce que represente l'anti colonialisme en actes, la mort de leurs proches possiblement. Camus, en tout cas a ete bien plus honnete sur cette contradiction la que bien des contemporains, et ca fait vraiment sourire de voir ce texte parler du PC, sans evoquer les positions troubles. qui etaient les siennes vis a vis de la question algerienne a cette meme epoque, a cote desquelles le pacifisme de Camus est finalement bien plus offensif.

Et puis les questions posees par cette piece, celle de la violence revolutionnaire, qui n'est pas qu'un mot, mais effectivement du sang, du sordide et du terrible, sont des questions qui agitent. normalement tout proletaire engage dans n'importe quelle lutte. Camus repond mal, mais pose la question. Clown Fish? Je trouve ca beaucoup moins petit bourgeois, personnellement , qu'evacuer les problemes d'un revers de main avec le mot morale, et de les entacher. immediatement de suspicion. On ne peut pas taire ces questions si on The Cost of Pursuing Essay, est revolutionnaire. Nurse Evaluation? Certes, aucun individu ne peut les resoudre seul, et c'est tout le drame de l'oeuvre de Camus et de sa vie, cette impasse qui le. conduit a demander la grace de Brasillach, mais aussi le pessimisme ravageur d'un homme seul, declasse effectivement. Mais enfin, ce drame la, je me demande combien de militants le vivent a l'extreme gauche aujourd'hui, tout en parlant du Peuple avec un grand P, et en faisant mine de n'avoir aucun souci avec. leurs origines pas vraiment ouvrieres, ou avec leur position de classe actuelle, ou tout simplement avec le bagage culturel qui eleve, mais isole aussi. Parce qu'enfin, la majorite du Peuple comme on of Pursuing Power, dit ici a lu Camus a l'ecole et donc l'a oublie totalement, et est passee a cote, comme avec tout ce qu'on lit a l'ecole.

Donc c'est bien de bruler ses classiques, mais il faudrait avir l'honnete de s'interroger sur sa propre position , qui conduit a le faire avec autant de rage et de depit. Roubachov 30/04/2010 21:19. oui on outline, s'en tape un peu de son transfert au Pantheon ! pour ce qui me concerne je n'ai jamais reussi a le lire ce qui n'est pas faute d'avoir essaye.