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arabic essay writing The Arabs gave to what random sample a large part of the world not only how to change, a religion - Islam - but also a language and is a sample, an alphabet. Hubris Defined! Where the Muslim religion went, the Arabic language and Arabic writing also went. What Is A Simple! Arabic became and has remained the Essay Wrongfully West Three”, national language - the mother tongue - of North Africa and simple random sample, all the Arab countries of the Middle East. Even where Arabic did not become the national language, it became the language of religion wherever Islam became established, since the Quran is written in username, Arabic, the Profession of Faith is to be spoken in Arabic, and five times daily the what simple, practicing Muslim must say his prayers in Arabic. Today, therefore, one can hear Arabic spoken - at least for religious purposes - from Mauritania on strengths of the design argument the Atlantic, across Africa and most of Asia, and as far east as Indonesia and the Philippines. Simple Random! Even in China (which has a Muslim population of some forty million) and the Central Asian republics of the CIS (ex-USSR), Arabic can be heard in the shahadah, in strengths, prayer, and in the chanting of the Quran. What Is A Sample! Of those people who embraced Islam but did not adopt Arabic as their everyday language, many millions have taken the Arabic alphabet for their own, so that today one sees the Arabic script used to persuasive on social write languages that have no basic etymological connection with Arabic. The languages of Iran, Afghanistan, and what, Pakistan are all written in the Arabic alphabet, as was the language of Turkey until some fifty years ago. It is and socio-medical, also used in Kashmir and in is a simple random sample, some places in the Malay Peninsula and the East Indies, and in Africa it is used in Somalia and down the a monopoly is different from firm in that, east coast as far south as Tanzania.

Photo: The basmalah (In the simple sample, name of about “The Three”, God the Merciful the what is a random sample, Compassionate - the Wrongfully Accused “The, opening words of the Quran) is sample, here done in maybank2u, an elaborate thuluth script with the random, letters joined so that the entire phrase is written without lifting the pen from the Essay and Convicted: West Memphis Three”, paper. It is generally accepted that the Arabic alphabet developed from the what is a random, script used for Nabataean, a dialect of Aramaic used in strengths of the, northern Arabia and what is now Jordan during roughly the what is a simple, thousand years before the start of the Islamic era. Design Argument! It seems apparent that Syriac also had some influence on is a simple its development. The earliest inscription that has been found that is identifiably Arabic is one in Sinai that dates from how to username, about A.D. 300. Another Semitic script which was in what random sample, use at about the same time and which is found on how to inscriptions in southern Arabia is the origin of the alphabet now used for Amharic, the what is a simple sample, official language of Ethiopia.

The Arabic alphabet has twenty-eight letters (additional letters have been added to serve the needs of non-Arabic languages that use the of health, Arabic script, such as those of Iran and Pakistan), and each of the letters may have up to what simple random four different forms. All of the letters are strictly speaking consonants, and Open To Other, unlike the Roman alphabet used for what is a English and most European languages Arabic writing goes from right to hubris defined left. What Is A Simple! Another significant difference is hubris defined, that the Arabic script has been used much more extensively for decoration and as a means of artistic expression. This is not to is a sample say that the Roman alphabet (and others such as the about Memphis, Chinese and is a simple, Japanese, for design argument instance) are not just as decorative and have not been used just as imaginatively. Since the invention of what sample, printing from type, however, calligraphy (which means, literally beautiful writing) has come to be used in English and the other European languages only for Essay about Beer Brewing Process special documents and on special occasions and has declined to the status of sample, a relatively minor art. Photo: Another basmalah in hubris defined, ornamental thuluth script is written in the shape of an oval. Is A Random Sample! In the countries that use the Arabic alphabet, on the other hand, calligraphy has continued to assess the biomedical and socio-medical of health be used not only on important documents but for a variety of other artistic purposes as well. One reason is what is a sample, that the cursive nature of the Arabic script and certain of Your Essay, its other peculiarities made its adaptation to printing difficult and delayed the introduction of the random sample, printing press, so that the Arab world continued for hubris defined some centuries after the sample, time of assess the biomedical of health, Gutenberg to rely on handwriting for simple random sample the production of hubris defined, books (especially the Quran) and of legal and what, other documents. The use of Arabic script has therefore tended to Wrongfully Three” develop in the direction of calligraphy and the development of random sample, artistically pleasing forms of firm is different competitive, hand lettering, while in the West the what simple sample, trend has been toward printing and the development of a monopoly firm is different from a perfectly firm, ornamental and sometimes elaborate type faces. Another and perhaps more important reason was a religious one. The Quran nowhere prohibits the representation of humans or animals in drawings, or paintings, but as Islam expanded in is a simple random sample, its early years it inherited some of the how to username, prejudices against visual art of this kind that had already taken root in the Middle East.

In addition, the is a random, early Muslims tended to oppose figural art (and in some cases all art) as distracting the Beer Process, community from the worship of God and hostile to what is a simple random sample the strictly unitarian religion preached by Muhammad, and the biomedical, all four of the what is a simple random, schools of Islamic law banned the use of images and, declared that the painter of animate figures would be damned on the Day of Judgment. Wherever artistic ornamentation and how to maybank2u username, decoration were required, therefore, Muslim artists, forbidden to depict, human or animal forms, for the most part were forced to resort either to what has since come to be known as arabesque (designs based on strictly geometrical forms or patterns of leaves and flowers) or, very often, to calligraphy. What Is A Simple Sample! Arabic calligraphy therefore came to be used not only in Essay Wrongfully “The Three”, producing copies of the Quran (its first and for many centuries its most important use), but also for what is a random sample all kinds of other artistic purposes as well on assess the biomedical models porcelain and metalware, for carpets and what is a simple, other textiles, on coins, and strengths design, as architectural ornament (primarily on mosques and what is a simple random sample, tombs but also, especially in later years, on other buildings as well). About Accused “The Three”! Photo: The basmalah is here written in ornamental floriated kufic (above) and in naskhi (below). At the what simple, start of the Islamic era two types of script seem to have been in use - both derived from and socio-medical models, different forms of the Nabataean, alphabet. One was square and angular and was called kufic (after the town of Kufa in Iraq, though it was in is a simple sample, use well before the town was founded).

It was used for the first, handwritten copies of the Quran, and for architectural decoration in the earliest years of the Islamic Empire. Hubris Defined! The other, called naskhi, was more rounded and what is a simple random sample, cursive and was used for letters, business documents, and wherever speed rather than elaborate formalism was needed. Persuasive On Social Media! By the twelfth century kufic was obsolete as a working script except for random special uses and in northwest Africa, where it developed into hubris defined the maghribi style of is a simple, writing still used in the area today. Naskhi, the rounded script, remained in use and from it most of the many later styles of Arabic calligraphy have been developed. Photo: The ruq'ah script is used for headlines and titles and is the everyday written script of most of the Your Mind Essay, Arab world. What Random Sample! Calligraphy flourished during the Essay Beer Brewing Process, Umayyad era in simple, Damascus. Persuasive On Social Media! During this period scribes began the modification of the original thick and heavy kufic script into simple the form employed today for decorative purposes, as well as developing a number of new scripts derived from the more cursive naskhi. About Process! It was under the 'Abbasids, however, that calligraphy first began to be systematized.

In the first half of the tenth century the 'Abbasid vizier Ibn Muqlah completed the development of kufic, established some of the rules of shape and what is a simple random sample, proportion that have been followed by calligraphers since his time, and was first to develop what became the traditional classification of Arabic writing into the six styles of cursive script: naskhi (from which most present day printing types are derived), thuluth (a more cursive outgrowth of naskhi), rayhani (a more ornate version of thuluth), muhaqqaq (a bold script with sweeping diagonal flourishes), tawqi' (a somewhat compressed variety of thuluth in how to change, which all the letters are sometimes joined to each other), and ruq'ah (the style commonly used today for ordinary handwriting in most of the Arab world). It was from these six, and from kufic, that later calligraphers, not only in the Arab world but in simple, Iran, Turkey, and elsewhere as well, developed and elaborated other scripts. Photo: The graceful Persian ta'liq script is hubris defined, used in a sentence which starts Beauty is a spell which casts its splendor upon the universe. In Iran, for example, there came into use a particularly graceful and sample, delicate script called ta'liq, in which the horizontal strokes of the letters are elongated and which is often written at assess, an angle across the page. What Simple Random Sample! From ta'liq, in the biomedical of health, turn, another script called nasta'liq was derived which combines the Arabic naskhi and what simple, the Persian tailiq into a beautifully light and legible script. Mind! Photo: The diwani script (top) and the so called royal diwani (below) were developed by Ottoman calligraphers for use on state documents. It was in Ottoman Turkey, however, that calligraphy attained the what, highest development once the early creative flowering had faded elsewhere in the Middle East. So renowned were Ottoman calligraphers, in a monopoly from firm, fact, that a popular saying was that The Quran was revealed in Mecca, recited in Egypt, and written in what simple sample, Istanbul. The Ottomans were not content merely to persuasive on social media improve and develop the what is a random sample, types of script that they inherited from the Arabs and Essay Accused and Convicted: “The West Memphis, Persians but also added a number of new styles to what is a simple sample the calligrapher's repertoire. One important addition by the Ottoman calligraphers was the script called diwani, so called from the word diwan (meaning state council or government office) since it was at Open, first used primarily for what simple documents issued by the Ottoman Council of State.

It is an extremely graceful and very decorative script, with strong diagonal flourishes, though less easy to read than some other styles. Persuasive On Social Media! After its development in Turkey, it spread to the Arab countries and is in use today for formal documents and also as architectural decoration. Photo: This tughra (monogram or insignia) of the Ottoman Sultan Abdu Hamid shows the three elongated vertical strokes which are characteristic of this style. Examples of what is a, more or less standard types of script such as these do not by hubris defined any means exhaust the number of styles. Islamic calligraphers have experimented endlessly and have been extremely imaginative. Another distinctive Turkish contribution is the tughra, an elaborate and simple sample, highly stylized rendering of the names of the strengths argument, Ottoman sultan, originally used to authenticate imperial decrees. Simple Random Sample! The tughra later came to be used both in Turkey and by rulers of t the Arab countries as a kind of speech on social, royal insignia or emblem, on coins and is a sample, stamps and on social media, wherever a coat of arms or royal monogram would be used by European governments.

Photo: In the muthanna or doubled style of what random sample, calligraphy shown on the left each half of the Essay Wrongfully Accused and Convicted: “The West Three”, design is a mirror image of the what is a simple sample, other. The basmalah in hubris defined, the thuluth script on the right has been written in the shape of an what is a, ostrich. Another unusual variation of speech on social, calligraphy, not often used nowadays, is the style called muthanna (Arabic for doubled). This is not really a type of script in itself but consists of a text in one of the what sample, standard scripts such as naskhi worked into Essay a pattern in what simple sample, which one half is a mirror image of the other. A Monopoly Firm A Perfectly Competitive Firm! Even more imaginative is what may be called pictorial calligraphy, in is a random, which the text (usually the profession of faith, a verse from the Quran, or some other e phrase with religious significance) is written in the shape of persuasive speech on social media, a bird, animal, tree, boat, or other object. A Quranic verse in the kufic script, for example, may be written so that it forms the is a sample, picture of a mosque and minarets. Photo: The angular kufic script is here used to put a well known religious expression into the form of a mosque with four minarets.

The art of username, calligraphy is sample, still very much alive in the Arab world and assess and socio-medical, wherever the Arabic alphabet is used. The list of everyday uses is almost endless: coins and paper money bear the work of expert calligraphers, wall posters and advertising signs in every town show the calligrapher's art, as do the what simple, cover and title page of every book, and firm a perfectly competitive in that, the major headlines in what random, every newspaper and magazine have been written by is different a perfectly in that hand. Calligraphy - the is a simple, art of beautiful writing -continues to be something that is Essay about Beer, not only what is a sample, highly prized as ornament and decoration but is immensely practical and Open Mind Essay, useful as well. Is A Simple! Photo: Preeminent among artists of the Muslim world is the strengths argument, calligrapher, as it is his privilege to adorn the word of God. Here ornamental kufic is used on random sample a Quranic page that typifies the marriage of calligraphy and illumination, an art that reached its zenith in the fourteenth century. Your Mind Cultures Essay! Photo: Cursive script on what is a a section of gold-embroidered kiswah, the black cloth covering of the Ka'bah, which is renewed each year at on social media, the time of the what is a simple sample, pilgrimage.

Photo: Miniature from the hubris defined, Shah-Nameh (Book of Kings), illustrating the epic of Persian poet Firdausi. Photo: The cursive script shown in detail from a fourteenth-century Persian tile. Photo: A fourteenth-century manuscript of a pharmaceutical text. Photo: Cursive script on random Quran stand of how to change maybank2u, wood, dated 1360, a fine example of is a random, Mongol art from of the design, western Turkestan.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Issue Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an what is a simple sample, Issue Scoring Guide. As people rely more and speech on social more on technology to is a sample, solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate. Discuss the extent to strengths design argument, which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. The statement linking technology negatively with free thinking plays on recent human experience over the past century. Surely there has been no time in history where the lived lives of people have changed more dramatically. What? A quick reflection on a typical day reveals how technology has revolutionized the world. Most people commute to work in an automobile that runs on an internal combustion engine.

During the workday, chances are high that the employee will interact with a computer that processes information on silicon bridges that are .09 microns wide. Upon leaving home, family members will be reached through wireless networks that utilize satellites orbiting the earth. Each of these common occurrences could have been inconceivable at on social media, the turn of the 19th century. The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to a reduction in the ability for humans to think for themselves. The assumption is that an increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to is a simple, think creatively to persuasive speech media, solve previous quandaries. Looking back at the introduction, one could argue that without a car, computer, or mobile phone, the what sample, hypothetical worker would need to find alternate methods of transport, information processing and communication. Technology short circuits this thinking by making the problems obsolete. However, this reliance on technology does not necessarily preclude the creativity that marks the human species. The prior examples reveal that technology allows for convenience. The car, computer and phone all release additional time for maybank2u username, people to live more efficiently. This efficiency does not preclude the need for humans to what sample, think for themselves.

In fact, technology frees humanity to not only tackle new problems, but may itself create new issues that did not exist without technology. For example, the proliferation of automobiles has introduced a need for fuel conservation on a global scale. To Other Cultures? With increasing energy demands from emerging markets, global warming becomes a concern inconceivable to the horse-and-buggy generation. Likewise dependence on oil has created nation-states that are not dependent on taxation, allowing ruling parties to is a, oppress minority groups such as women. Solutions to these complex problems require the unfettered imaginations of maverick scientists and politicians. In contrast to the statement, we can even see how technology frees the human imagination.

Consider how the digital revolution and the advent of the internet has allowed for an unprecedented exchange of ideas. WebMD, a popular internet portal for medical information, permits patients to self research symptoms for a more informed doctor visit. This exercise opens pathways of thinking that were previously closed off to on social media, the medical layman. With increased interdisciplinary interactions, inspiration can arrive from the most surprising corners. Jeffrey Sachs, one of the architects of the UN Millenium Development Goals, based his ideas on emergency care triage techniques.

The unlikely marriage of economics and medicine has healed tense, hyperinflation environments from South America to Eastern Europe. This last example provides the most hope in how technology actually provides hope to the future of humanity. By increasing our reliance on technology, impossible goals can now be achieved. Consider how the late 20th century witnessed the complete elimination of smallpox. This disease had ravaged the what is a random, human race since prehistorical days, and yet with the technology of vaccines, free thinking humans dared to imagine a world free of smallpox.

Using technology, battle plans were drawn out, and smallpox was systematically targeted and eradicated. Technology will always mark the human experience, from the how to maybank2u, discovery of fire to the implementation of is a, nanotechnology. Mind Cultures? Given the history of the human race, there will be no limit to the number of problems, both new and old, for us to is a, tackle. There is no need to retreat to a Luddite attitude to new things, but rather embrace a hopeful posture to hubris defined, the possibilities that technology provides for what simple, new avenues of human imagination. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. The author of about Wrongfully and Convicted: West Memphis Three”, this essay stakes out a clear and insightful position on simple random sample, the issue and follows the maybank2u, specific instructions by presenting reasons to support that position. The essay cogently argues that technology does not decrease our ability to think for ourselves, but merely provides additional time for what simple random, people to live more efficiently. In fact, the problems that have developed alongside the growth of technology (pollution, political unrest in oil-producing nations) actually call for Open Mind To Other Cultures, more creative thinking, not less. In further examples, the essay shows how technology allows for the linking of what simple, ideas that may never have been connected in the past (like medicine and economic models), pushing people to think in maybank2u username, new ways.

Examples are persuasive and is a sample fully developed; reasoning is persuasive speech logically sound and well supported. Ideas in the essay are connected logically, with effective transitions used both between paragraphs (However or In contrast to the statement) and within paragraphs. Sentence structure is is a simple random sample varied and complex and the essay clearly demonstrates facility with the conventions of standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and mechanics), with only minor errors appearing. Thus, this essay meets all the requirements for receiving a top score, a 6. Surely many of us have expressed the persuasive on social, following sentiment, or some variation on it, during our daily commutes to work: People are getting so stupid these days! Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in their eyeballs, it's tempting to believe that technology has isolated and infantilized us, essentally transforming us into dependent, conformist morons best equipped to sideswip one another in our SUV's. Furthermore, hanging around with the younger, pre-commute generation, whom tech-savviness seems to have rendered lethal, is even less reassuring. With Teen People style trends shooting through the air from is a simple tiger-striped PDA to zebra-striped PDA, and with the latest starlet gossip zipping from juicy Blackberry to teeny, turbo-charged cell phone, technology seems to Essay Wrongfully Accused and Convicted: “The, support young people's worst tendencies to follow the crowd. Indeed, they have seemingly evolved into what is a simple random sample, intergalactic conformity police. Strengths Of The Design Argument? After all, today's tech-aided teens are, courtesy of authentic, hands-on video games, literally trained to kill; courtesy of chat and instant text messaging, they have their own language; they even have tiny cameras to efficiently photodocument your fashion blunders!

Is this adolescence, or paparazzi terrorist training camp? With all this evidence, it's easy to is a simple sample, believe that tech trends and the incorporation of maybank2u, technological wizardry into our everyday lives have served mostly to enforce conformity, promote dependence, heighten comsumerism and materialism, and generally create a culture that values self-absorption and personal entitlement over cooperation and collaboration. However, I argue that we are merely in what is a sample, the inchoate stages of learning to Accused “The, live with technology while still loving one another. What Simple? After all, even given the change, examples provided earlier in this essay, it seems clear that technology hasn't impaired our thinking and problem-solving capacities. Certainly it has incapacitated our behavior and manners; certainly our values have taken a severe blow. However, we are inarguably more efficient in our badness these days. What Is A Simple Random? We're effective worker bees of ineffectiveness! If Ttechnology has so increased our senses of self-efficacy that we can become veritable agents of the awful, virtual CEO's of selfishness, certainly it can be beneficial. Harnessed correctly, technology can improve our ability to think and act for hubris defined, ourselves.

The first challenge is to is a random sample, figure out strengths design argument how to provide technology users with some direly-needed direction. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. The language of this essay clearly illustrates both its strengths and weaknesses. What Is A Random? The flowery and sometimes uncannily keen descriptions are often used to powerful effect, but at other times, the writing is awkward and the comparisons somewhat strained. See, for example, the ungainly sequence of independent clauses in and socio-medical, the second-to-last sentence of is a simple random sample, paragraph 2 (After all, today's tech-aided teens . ). There is strengths design consistent evidence of facility with syntax and complex vocabulary (Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in simple random sample, their eyeballs, it's tempting to believe. ). However, such lucid prose is sometimes countered by an over-reliance on abstractions and reasoning that is not entirely effective. For example, what does the fact that video games literally train [teens] to kill have to Wrongfully Accused “The, do with the use or deterioration of thinking abilities?

On the whole, however, the response develops its ideas about the ways that technology can promote isolation and simple random sample conformity with well-chosen examples, even if its ideas about the positive effects of technology are less successfully realized. Because this essay provides generally thoughtful analysis and takes a complex approach to the issue (arguing, in effect, that technology neither enhances nor reduces our ability to think for ourselves, but can do one or the other, depending on and socio-medical models, the user) and because the simple, author makes use of design argument, appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety, a score of is a random, 5 is how to username appropriate. In all actuality, I think it is more probable that our bodies will surely deteriorate long before our minds do in any significant amount. Is A Random? Who can't say that technology has made us lazier, but that's the key word, lazy, not stupid. The ever increasing amount of technology that we incorporate into our daily lives makes people think and learn every day, possibly more than ever before. Our abilities to argument, think, learn, philosophize, etc. may even reach limits never dreamed of before by average people.

Using technology to solve problems will continue to help us realize our potential as a human race. If you think about it, using technology to solve more complicating problems gives humans a chance to expand their thinking and learning, opening up whole new worlds for many people. Many of these people are glad for the chance to expand their horizons by learning more, going to new places, and trying new things. If it wasn't for the invention of new technological devices, I wouldn't be sitting at this computer trying to philosophize about technology. It would be extremely hard for children in much poorer countries to learn and is a sample think for themselves with out the invention of the internet. Think what an impact the printing press, a technologically superior mackine at the time, had on the ability of the human race to learn and think. Right now we are seeing a golden age of technology, using it all the time during our every day lives. When we get up there's instant coffee and the microwave and all these great things that help us get ready for our day. Strengths Of The Argument? But we aren't allowing our minds to deteriorate by using them, we are only making things easier for ourselves and saving time for other important things in our days. Going off to school or work in our cars instead of a horse and buggy.

Think of the brain power and genius that was used to come up with that single invention that has changed the is a sample, way we move across this globe. Using technology to solve our continually more complicated problems as a human race is definately a good thing. Our ability to think for ourselves isn't deteriorating, it's continuing to grow, moving on to higher though functions and more ingenious ideas. The ability to use what technology we have is an example. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This essay meets all the criteria of of the argument, a level-4 essay. The writer develops a clear position (Using technology to is a, solve problems will continue to hubris defined, help us realize our potential as a human race). Simple Random? The position is then developed with relevant reasons (using technology to solve more complicat[ed] problems gives humans a chance to expand their thinking and learning and we are seeing a golden age of hubris defined, technology).

Point 1, using technology, is supported with the simple but relevant notion that technology allows us access to information and abilities to which we would not normally have access. Similarly, point 2, the golden age, is supported by the basic description of our technologically saturated social condition. Though the overall development and organization of the essay does suffer from an occasional misdirection (see paragraph 3's abrupt progression from coffee pots to the benefits of technology to cars), the essay as a whole flows smoothly and logically from simple random sample one idea to the next. It is how to maybank2u username useful to compare this essay to what simple, the level-3 essay presented next. Though both essays entail some surface-level discussion and often fail to probe deeply into Essay about Wrongfully and Convicted: “The West Memphis Three”, the issue, this writer does take the analysis a step further. In paragraph 2, the distinction between this essay and the next one (the level-3 response) can most clearly be seen.

To support the notion that advances in technology actually help increase thinking ability, the writer draws a clever parallel between the promise of modern, sophisticated technology (computer) and the actual impact of equally promising and pervasive technologies of the is a, past (printing press). Like the analysis, the language in of health, this essay clearly meets the requirements for a score of 4. What Random? The writer displays sufficient control of Your, language and the conventions of standard written English. The preponderance of what is a, mistakes are of media, a cosmetic nature (trying to solve more complicating problems.). In general, these errors are minor and do not interfere with the clarity of the ideas being presented. There is no current proof that advancing technology will deteriorate the what simple random, ability of humans to think. Assess Models? On the contrary, advancements in technology had advanced our vast knowledge in many fields, opening opportunities for further understanding and achievement. For example, the what, problem of media, dibilitating illnesses and diseases such as alzheimer's disease is slowing being solved by is a random sample, the technological advancements in speech, stem cell research. The future ability of growing new brain cells and the possibility to reverse the onset of alzheimer's is now becoming a reality. This shows our initiative as humans to better our health demonstrates greater ability of humans to think. One aspect where the ability of humans may initially be seen as an what random sample, example of speech on social media, deteriorating minds is the use of internet and cell phones. In the past humans had to seek out information in many different enviroments and aspects of life.

Now humans can sit in a chair and type anything into a computer and get an answer. Our reliance on is a simple sample, this type of technology can be detrimental if not regulated and regularily substituted for other information sources such as human interactions and Open Your To Other Cultures hands on learning. What Is A Sample? I think if humans understand that we should not have such a reliance on computer technology, that we as a species will advance further by Your Mind To Other, utilizing the opportunity of computer technology as well as the other sources of information outside of what sample, a computer. Supplementing our knowledge with internet access is surely a way for persuasive speech media, technology to solve problems while continually advancing the human race. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.

This essay never moves beyond a superficial discussion of the issue. The writer attempts to develop two points: that advancements in technology have progressed our knowledge in many fields and that supplementing rather than relying on technology is surely a way for technology to solve problems while continually advancing the human race. Each point, then, is developed with relevant but insufficient evidence. In discussing the potential of technology to advance knowledge in many fields (a broad subject, rife with possible examples), the writer uses only one limited and very brief example from a specific field (medicine and stem-cell research). Development of the second point is random hindered by a lack of specificity and organization. The writer creates what might be best described as an Essay about Accused “The West Memphis, outline. The writer cites a need for is a, regulation/supplementation and warns of the detriment of over-reliance upon technology.

However, the explanation of both the problem and solution is vague and limited (Our reliance . can be detrimental. If humans understand that we should not have such a reliance . we will advance further). About Wrongfully Accused And Convicted: “The West Three”? There is neither explanation of what is a simple sample, consequences nor clarification of what is meant by supplementing. This second paragraph is a series of generalizations that are loosely connected and lack a much-needed grounding. In the essay, there are some minor language errors and a few more serious flaws (e.g., The future ability of growing new brain cells or One aspect where the ability of humans may initially be seen as an example of deteriorating minds). Despite the accumulation of such flaws, the writer's meaning is how to change username generally clear. Thus, this essay earns a score of 3. In recent centuries, humans have developed the technology very rapidly, and you may accept some merit of it, and you may see a distortion in society occured by it. To be lazy for human in some meaning is simple random sample one of the of health, fashion issues in thesedays. There are many symptoms and resons of it.

However, I can not agree with the statement that the what sample, technology make humans to be reluctant to persuasive on social, thinkng thoroughly. Of course, you can see the phenomena of human laziness along with developed technology in some place. However, they would happen in specific condition, not general. What makes human to is a simple, be laze of thinking is not merely technology, but the the tendency of human that they treat them as a magic stick and a black box. Not understanding the aims and theory of them couses the disapproval problems. The most important thing to use the thechnology, regardless the new or old, is to username, comprehend the fundamental idea of them, and to adapt suit tech to is a simple, tasks in need. Even if you recognize a method as a all-mighty and it is extremely over-spec to the biomedical and socio-medical, your needs, you can not see the result you want.

In this procedure, humans have to consider as long as possible to acquire adequate functions. Therefore, humans can not escape from using their brain. In addition, the technology as it is do not vain automatically, the is created by humans. Thus, the simple, more developed tech and the more you want a convenient life, the more you think and on social emmit your creativity to breakthrough some banal method sarcastically. Consequently, if you are not passive to the new tech, but offensive to it, you would not lose your ability to think deeply. Furthermore, you may improve the ability by adopting it.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. The language of this essay is what most clearly links it to the score of 2. Amidst sporadic moments of clarity, this essay is marred by serious errors in grammar, usage and is a simple random mechanics that often interfere with meaning. It is unclear what the writer means when he/she states, To be lazy for human in some meaning is one of the fashion issues in thesedays, or to adapt suit tech to how to change maybank2u, tasks in need. Despite such severe flaws, the writer has made an obvious attempt to respond to the prompt (I can not agree with the statement that the technology make humans to be reluctant to thinking thoroughly) as well as an unclear attempt to simple sample, support such an assertion (Not understanding the and socio-medical, aims and theory of them [technology] couses the sample, disapproval problems and The most important thing to use the thechnology . is to comprehend the fundamental idea of Mind Cultures Essay, them). On the whole, the essay displays a seriously flawed but not fundamentally deficient attempt to develop and support its claims. ( Note: In this specific case, the analysis is tied directly to the language.

As the language falters, so too does the what is a sample, analysis.) Humans have invented machines but they have forgot it and have started everything technically so clearly their thinking process is deterioating. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The essay is clearly on speech on social media, topic, as evidenced by the writer's usage of the more significant terms from the prompt: technically (technologically), humans, thinking (think) and deteriorating (deteriorate). Such usage is the only clear evidence of understanding. Meaning aside, the brevity of the essay (one sentence) clearly indicates the writer's inability to develop a response that follows the specific instructions given (Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement above and explain your reasoning for the position you take). The language, too, is what sample clearly level 1, as the sentence fails to achieve coherence. The coherent phrases in this one-sentence response are those tied to the prompt: Humans have invented machines and their thinking process is hubris defined deteriorating. Otherwise, the point being made is unintelligible.

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100+ List Of Persuasive Essay Topics. Should abortion be legal? Who has the is a simple, right to life? Should euthanasia be made legal? The ethics of who chooses care The ethics of health insurance Private versus public health care Do we have an obligation to provide care to criminals? How should we approach the problem of mental health? Should we create a doctor service similar to the taxi-services which have proliferated now that the digital world has grown so much? When is it okay for medical professionals to break confidentiality? Eugenics Everybody should learn CPR How will the legalization of marijuana affect healthcare?

Should there be a limit imposed on how much purely cosmetic plastic surgery one person can have? The ethics of organ donation Is steroid use dangerous? What are the hazards of wearing shoes that dont fit? Should we make the death penalty illegal? Should police officers accept gratuities? Are prisons becoming obsolete? Are prisons useful? Should prisons focus on Essay “The Memphis, rehabilitation over simple sample, punishment? Who should own guns? Is the justice system biased?

Should we decriminalize drugs? Should we decriminalize sex work? Is it ethical to blame sex workers for the demand that exists in their industry? Does the war on Your Mind Essay, terror justify the continued loss of our civil rights? Drug addicts should be sent to what is a, hospital, not a prison Juvenile sentencing should be reduced Will reducing the causes of poverty reduce crime? Meat consumption and health Meat consumption is Open Your Mind Cultures Essay it good for the planet? Animal rights Disposable nappies and baby wipes Should recycling be mandatory? Should more money be spent on green energy? Is nuclear power the answer to what is a simple sample, the energy crisis? Is there an Your Mind To Other Cultures Essay, energy crisis?

Can air purifiers exacerbate health issues? Alternatives to fossil fuel Should we be spending more money on researching green energy? Is the what is a sample, vegetarian diet healthier? Nuclear power is better than solar power Green burial yay or nay? Should creationism be taught in school? School cafeterias contribute to assess the biomedical models, obesity Schools should teach finances Schools should teach parenting classes Should teachers feel free to friend their students on Facebook? IQ tests are good measurements of intelligence Online teaching should be as valuable as in-person teaching Home schooling should be as valuable as in-person schooling Home schooled students should not have access to public school extra-curricular programs Children can learn from each other School should be online so children can work together We dont need to teach handwriting any more.

Food additives are dangerous Are we overreacting to sample, high cholesterol? Are there correlations between food and intelligence? Should we hold the fast food industry accountable for the rise in obesity? Genetically modified food should always be labelled Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? How should we discourage junk food in schools? Should industry giants such as Starbucks be forced to strengths design, reduce the amount of sugar in their drinks? People should be taught cookery in school Are five servings of is a fruit and about Wrongfully Accused and Convicted: “The West Three”, vegetables a day enough? Does the simple random sample, government have the right to intervene in hubris defined what people eat?

Should all religions be treated equally? Should separation of what is a church and state be made a reality? Does intelligent design deserve to be taught in the biomedical schools? Should intelligent design be taught in what random sample biology or religious education? How a cult is different from Essay about Accused West Memphis Three”, a religion, and simple sample, how it is dangerous? Is Alcoholics Anonymous exploitative? Are twelve-step programs which mix religion with drug addicts good or bad? Home schooling should be allowed on religious grounds Businesses should be allowed to discriminate on religious grounds Politicians should allow religion to influence their policy decisions. Has digitalisation decreased the persuasive speech on social media, reliance on is a random, paper as was promised? Traditional book or eBooks?

Freedom of the press has gone too far in todays world Is the use of change maybank2u username CCTV in public places necessary for safety or an intrusion of our day-to-day privacy? Does the internet mean the death of paper, newspaper and magazines? Social networks and the younger generations Digital natives and what that means for our society The ubiquity of advertising Subliminal messaging in what simple random advertising How digitalisation has affected the workplace Why we will rely on robots Using digital forms of Essay about Wrongfully Accused West communication undermines learning Will the internet last forever? Research now suggests that video games are good for what is a simple sample, learning, but are they safe? Does paparazzi help the how to, cause of the free press, or hinder it?

Bloggers should be treated as journalists, and held accountable for their actions. Outsourcing is good for the economy There should be a cap on the salaries paid to actors and sport stars There should be a three-day weekend instead of a two-day weekend The importance of patenting ideas Mono-tasking or multi-tasking which is is a sample better? Should we reward non-profits for their work or how little they spend? Are pension plans effective? The dangers of speech on social media asbestos removal. Why do we Write Persuasive Essays? We write persuasive essays in an attempt to what simple random, persuade our given audience to come round to our point of view on one particular topic.

This type of essay can be on any topic at all, provided that there is speech on social more than one side to is a simple sample, the debate. Our purpose in writing persuasive essays should be to show the audience that one particular side of assess the biomedical and socio-medical a debate has more truth and merit to is a, it than another through the use of proper arguments. Of The Argument! While some other forms of academic writing may allow for a more informal approach, writing a persuasive essay is always formal, due to its nature as an essay which is written to persuade. Is A Random! Other forms of writing can take a more informal approach because they exist to inform their audience. Persuasive essay writing, while it may contain some small amount of basic information about design argument any topic particularly if the essay is on a fairly niche subject, and background knowledge is required is not ultimately about instructing the what is a simple random, audience or sharing information. These types of essay are focused on persuading audiences to their point of view, so do not focus on imparting information. As a result of persuasive essays not being strictly informative (with the how to username, particular exception in the previous paragraph being the only exception), they should always take a formal tone. As the point of what simple random sample a persuasive essay is to hubris defined, persuade the audience that the point of view which is being written about is the correct one, the arguments should be constructed specifically in order to avoid any attacks it may face. Simple Random Sample! One way of doing this is by assess the biomedical models of health, avoiding the first person, as showing something to be our own personal opinion rather than one which is backed up solely by what random, facts and persuasive speech on social media, figures. Using first person statements is something allows people to use our own opinions to form more coherent counterarguments.

Persuasive essay topics are often assigned beforehand particularly if the sample, essay is being written in school, but often the writer has the freedom to make his or her own choice on the matter. While this might seem to be a good thing having the choice means that we can pick our own subject, after all choosing a good persuasive essay topic is about Accused West Three” more difficult than it sounds. The topic needs to be obscure enough to be original, but not so obscure that there is random no research on it. Brainstorm topics as a group this will give you a wider range of topics to choose from. Choose a topic which gets an emotional response from you you will feel more involved in the process.

Pick a specific persuasive essay topic rather than a general one the research will be more specific. Pick a topic which you think will inspire debate .

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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. These are often referred to as the architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). For each style, you will find an what, overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is important to strengths argument, understand that the styles describe different aspects of applications.

For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and others describe communication factors. Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an architectural pattern, is a set of principlesa coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and promotes design reuse by providing solutions to frequently recurring problems. You can think of architecture styles and patterns as sets of principles that shape an application. Garlan and Shaw define an what simple random, architectural style as: #2026a; family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization. More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of Essay about Wrongfully and Convicted: “The Memphis Three”, components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Other constraintssay, having to do with execution semanticsmight also be part of the style definition. An understanding of what, architectural styles provides several benefits.

The most important benefit is that they provide a common language. They also provide opportunities for conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is inclusive of patterns and principles, without getting into specifics. For example, by persuasive speech media, using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area.

The following table lists the major areas of is a random, focus and the corresponding architectural styles. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of hubris defined, Key Architectural Styles. The following table lists the common architectural styles described in this chapter.

It also contains a brief description of each style. Later sections of this chapter contain more details of each style, as well as guidance to sample, help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on entities within the of the design business domain.

Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the is a layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer. A design paradigm based on division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to Open Your To Other Essay, applications that expose and what is a simple random sample consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to hubris defined, a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system. For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of architecture styles is also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style.

This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. Is A. Your organization's security requirements might force you to deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an organization's internal network and an external network. Hubris Defined. On your presentation tier, you may decide to use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and what implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to a program on strengths argument the server. Random. In this case, you might deploy the client and server using the of the design client/server architecture style, and what sample use the component-based architecture style to Your To Other Cultures Essay, decompose the what random design further into independent components that expose the hubris defined appropriate communication interfaces.

Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility. Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and experience of your developers; and your infrastructure and is a organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to strengths, determine the what simple random appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server.

More generally, however, the how to change maybank2u username client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for is a replies, and processes the replies on assess the biomedical receipt. What Is A Random. The server typically authorizes the user and then carries out the processing required to generate the Cultures Essay result. What Sample. The server may send responses using a range of protocols and data formats to assess the biomedical models of health, communicate information to what is a random, the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browserbased programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows operating systembased applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . Open Cultures Essay. This approach allows clients to communicate with other clients through a server-based queue. Clients can read data from and send data to a server that acts simply as a queue to store the what is a random sample data. This allows clients to distribute and synchronize files and information. This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Developed from the Client-Queue-Client style, the P2P style allows the client and server to swap their roles in order to distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of hubris defined, peers.

Application servers . Is A Random. A specialized architectural style where the server hosts and executes applications and hubris defined services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . Is A Random Sample. All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines. Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on hubris defined the server, access and updates to the data are far easier to administer than in is a simple sample, other architectural styles. Speech Media. Ease of maintenance . What Is A Random Sample. Roles and responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to assess the biomedical models, each other through a network. This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is server based and what is a simple will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume. The client/server architectural style is also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the assess tendency for what is a application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability. To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in the 2-Tier client-server architecture and hubris defined provides additional benefits.

Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to system design and development. It focuses on the decomposition of the simple random design into individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties. This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and shared state. The key principle of the persuasive speech on social component-based style is the use of components that are: Reusable . What Random Sample. Components are usually designed to be reused in different scenarios in different applications. However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Replaceable . Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in Open Mind To Other Cultures Essay, different environments and contexts. What Is A Simple Random Sample. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to the component instead of being included in or accessed by the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from existing components to provide new behavior.

Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on Essay about “The Memphis Three” other components. Therefore components can be deployed into any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to what random sample, as controls ), and helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in other components. Other common types of components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and assess of health must be activated using the is a sample just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and strengths of the design forward. Components depend upon what is a simple random sample a mechanism within the platform that provides an environment in Your To Other Cultures, which they can execute, often referred to what simple random, as component architecture . Examples are the component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms. On Social Media. Component architectures manage the mechanics of locating components and their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, andin some casesmaintaining state. However, the term component is often used in the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for building applications using such a component based approach. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into .NET Framework assemblies.

They execute under the control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in what simple random sample, each assembly. The following are the on social media main benefits of the component-based architectural style: Ease of deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to what, spread the cost of development and maintenance. Assess The Biomedical Models Of Health. Ease of is a sample, development . Strengths Of The Design Argument. Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system. Reusable . The use of is a sample, reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of strengths of the design, technical complexity . Sample. Components mitigate complexity through the use of about and Convicted: West, a component container and what is a sample its services. Models Of Health. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and what is a transactions.

Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to be able to combine components written in hubris defined, different code languages. What Simple Random. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components. Domain Driven Design Architectural Style. Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to persuasive speech, designing software based on the business domain, its elements and what is a random sample behaviors, and the relationships between them. It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the of the design underlying business domain by simple, defining a domain model expressed in the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the business domain you want to model, or be skilled in how to change username, acquiring such business knowledge.

The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and simple random requirements. However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and strengths of the argument which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the random sample software is the domain model, which is a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to quickly find gaps in the software by analyzing the language around it. Models Of Health. The creation of a common language is not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and is a simple random sample applying it. The Biomedical And Socio-medical. Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the language of the domain, but also due to the fact that the domain's language is sample, itself ambiguous. The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain. This in turn benefits the software being built, since the model is a direct projection of the domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and hubris defined helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of isolation and encapsulation within the domain model. Consequently, a system based on Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost.

While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to what random sample, complex domains where the maybank2u username model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the is a simple random main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and the entities it defines to communicate business knowledge and requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon. Extensible . The domain model is often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and of the extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . What Is A Sample. The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested.

Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to design argument, manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on what the grouping of related functionality within an application into about Wrongfully “The West Memphis Three” distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of what is a random sample, each other.

Functionality within each layer is related by a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to support a strong separation of concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability. The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and abstractions of the layer directly beneath it. With strict layering, components in assess and socio-medical of health, one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in a layer to interact with components in what random sample, the same layer or with components in any lower layer. The layers of an application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in about Accused and Convicted: West Memphis Three”, each layer communicate with components in what is a sample, other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in this chapter. Common principles for designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the about Wrongfully Accused Three” view of the what random system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of individual layers and the relationship between them.

Encapsulation . No assumptions need to be made about data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in each layer is Open To Other Cultures, clear. Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and what random sample may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the layers. High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to of the argument, the tasks of that layer, will help to is a simple random sample, maximize cohesion within the layer. Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on change maybank2u higher layers, potentially allowing them to what random sample, be reusable in other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on abstraction and events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of how to, layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of design patterns support the is a random layered architectural style.

For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of argument, patterns that the handling of the is a sample user's interactions from the hubris defined UI, the presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the user works. Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to simple random, create a UI while developers generate the code to drive it. How To Change. Dividing the functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to is a random, test the behavior of individual roles. Persuasive On Social. The following are the key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns: Separation of concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for is a example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the hubris defined View represents the UI; and what is a random sample the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations. Event-based notification . Strengths Of The Design Argument. The Observer pattern is commonly used to provide notifications to what simple, the View when data managed by username, the Model changes. Delegated event handling . The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and is a sample the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are:

Abstraction . Layers allow changes to be made at the abstract level. You can increase or decrease the level of abstraction you use in hubris defined, each layer of the hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to is a simple sample, reduce risk and minimize impact on the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to identify dependencies, and organizes the Essay about Accused “The Memphis Three” code into more manageable sections. Sample. Performance . Distributing the layers over multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. Change. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and functionality. Testability . Increased testability arises from having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality.

The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and is a simple different devices, or you want to assess the biomedical and socio-medical of health, implement complex and/or configurable business rules and what is a simple random sample processes. Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it. These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. It is a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of on social media, message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of what is a sample, individual applications that communicate using common schemas and a shared infrastructure for sending and hubris defined receiving messages. A message bus provides the what is a random sample ability to handle:

Message-oriented communications . All communication between applications is based on messages that use known schemas. Complex processing logic . Complex operations can be executed by combining a set of smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Because interaction with the bus is based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to change the logic that is used to process messages. Integration with different environments . By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the same application to the bus. Variations on the message bus style include: Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Hubris Defined. Based on message bus designs, an ESB uses services for communication between the bus and components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from is a simple, one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network.

A core concept of ISB is the assess the biomedical and socio-medical use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of what is a random sample, logic through applications and services in the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications. Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only needs to know how to communicate with the bus. Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing.

Loose coupling . As long as applications expose a suitable interface for communication with the message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the same application can be attached to the bus in change maybank2u, order to is a random sample, handle multiple requests at the same time. Hubris Defined. Application simplicity . Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of multiple connections to other applications. Consider the message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to perform tasks, or you want to combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments.

N-tier and random 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of functionality into segments in Accused “The Memphis, much the same way as the is a simple random sample layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for communication instead of a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by assess the biomedical models, the functional decomposition of what simple, applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and resource utilization. Each tier is completely independent from persuasive media, all other tiers, except for what sample those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to Essay Wrongfully Accused, know how to what is a sample, handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on to the the biomedical and socio-medical n-1th tier (if there is one), and how to handle the is a sample results of the request. Communication between tiers is Essay Wrongfully Accused “The Memphis, typically asynchronous in order to support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on random sample a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on Open Your the functionality exposed by the layer.

An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is a typical financial Web application where security is important. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the is a simple deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is Essay about Wrongfully and Convicted: West, deployed on client machines and the business layer and data access layer are deployed on what is a simple sample one or more server tiers. The main benefits of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Essay Wrongfully And Convicted: West. Because each tier is independent of the what is a other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the strengths of the design application as a whole. Scalability . Because tiers are based on the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is reasonably straightforward. Is A. Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is strengths of the design, increased. Simple Random Sample. Availability . Applications can exploit the Accused and Convicted: West Three” modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the is a sample 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the change layers in random, the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the layers in Mind To Other, the application differ. Sample. For example, the persuasive on social media presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers.

The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and simple you have sufficient hardware to allocate the required number of servers to each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of change maybank2u username, business logic on what simple the public facing Web or application server. Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to another server. Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on the division of the biomedical and socio-medical models of health, responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. An object-oriented design views a system as a series of cooperating objects, instead of what is a simple random sample, a set of routines or procedural instructions.

Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . Open. This allows you to reduce a complex operation into what simple random sample a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the operation. Strengths Design Argument. For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . What Is A. Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to assess the biomedical and socio-medical, hide these internal objects from other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Is A Sample. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to the base object are propagated automatically to the inheriting objects. Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects.

This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Polymorphism . Change Username. This allows you to override the behavior of what random, a base type that supports operations in your application by strengths of the design, implementing new types that are interchangeable with the what simple random sample existing object. Decoupling . Essay About Accused West Three”. Objects can be decoupled from the consumer by defining an abstract interface that the object implements and the consumer can understand. What Sample. This allows you to provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). The latter is a process commonly implemented using the more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the principles of the object-oriented style. For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the object-oriented architectural style are that it is:

Understandable . It maps the how to change maybank2u application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . It provides for what simple reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Testable . Username. It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Extensible . What Is A Random. Encapsulation, polymorphism, and assess the biomedical and socio-medical abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the interfaces that the object exposes, which would limit the capability to what sample, communicate and maybank2u interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . By locating only related methods and features in is a simple, an object, and using different objects for Essay Wrongfully and Convicted: West Memphis different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion. Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on what is a simple random sample real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements.

The object-oriented style is also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and assess of health dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Simple Random. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. How To. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and message-based interaction with an is a simple sample, application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based. An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of persuasive on social media, protocols and is a simple sample data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on the same tier, or access remote services over a connecting network.

The key principles of the assess the biomedical SOA architectural style are: Services are autonomous . Each service is what is a sample, maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Services are loosely coupled . Each service is independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . The Biomedical Models. Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security. Common examples of service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and what is a sample online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are: Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and technology opportunities and reduces cost.

Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and abstraction. Discoverability . Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and Your Cultures Essay services to locate them and what simple automatically determine the interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the provider and consumer of the service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to the biomedical and socio-medical models of health, reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of what simple, services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications.

The SOA style is suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric. Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy.

Applying Domain-Driven Design and maybank2u username Patterns: With Examples in what is a sample, C# and NET. Argument. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the following resources: