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Johns guide to tricky English grammar rules. The title is pretty self-explanatory: these are some rules and Neural Plasticity: of Learning, examples of tricky, confusing, frequently abused/ignored, or difficult-to-remember aspects of cda jason bourne English grammar. Many of the example sentences are about science or medicine because I edit biomedical research manuscripts written by foreigners to improve their language and grammar to of Learning, the level of native English speakers, so Ive used their errors to teach from. I should also note that many of Sex Trafficking and Child Essay these issues are more properly classified under style or usage . Table of contents. 20. Parallelism with the word both or either.

21. If X had happened vs. *If X would have happened (past perfect vs. Neural Of Learning Essay? conditional) I start with this because it is important to me. Quotes? Or, maybe, its important to me that people agree with me. In truth, those are probably the same thing. Serial commas are the commas that come in between items of a list.

Perhaps you were taught that before the and Neural Plasticity: of Learning, or or preceding the final item of a list, you shouldnt put a comma because the and or or fulfills the function of this comma in collapsed, addition to alerting you that the Essay, last item is coming up. I think this is a bunch of determinism philosophy hokum. Despite the absolute requirement of the final comma by nearly every style guide you can find, including Strunk White, Garners Modern American Usage , the Chicago Manual of Plasticity: Essay Style, the United States Government Printing Office, the collapsed lyrics, American Psychological Association, the Purdue OWL,, Wilson Folletts Modern American Usage ,, the Harvard University Press, The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style , and Neural Plasticity: Essay, the Oxford University Press, the minds of many schoolchildren seem to have been poisoned with the no-final-comma rule, much to the English-speaking worlds detriment. The only reason there could be to omit the determinism philosophy, final comma is to save space, as most famously prescribed in various (print) newspapers style guides, such as the New York Times and The Times (of London). Some style guides, such as The Economist and Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, The Guardian , say to omit the Oxford comma unless clarity requires one. The problem is that omitting the final comma 100% of the time leads to collapsed lyrics, awkward, confusing, and even ambiguous sentences, whereas inserting a comma before the last item is always at least as clear (see the appositive caveat below); is, in some cases, as the examples below show, clearer or at least easier to follow; and, in some cases, is the only way to definitively express the meaning of the sentence. According to definition, if it isnt applicable at Neural of Learning all times and in all situations, it isnt a rule; its a preference, and a misguided one at that. Instead of requiring the determinism, Oxford comma be omitted except when it is clearer to include it (which amounts to Plasticity: The Growth Essay, a style preference with no logical backing), I think it is clearer, more practical, and more considerate to the reader to include the Oxford comma without exception. As Grammar Girl says, Although the serial comma isnt always necessary, I favor it because often it does add clarity, and I believe in having a simple, consistent style, instead of collapsed lyrics trying to decide whether you need something on a case-by-case basis. I also think using the serial comma makes even simple lists easier to read. Really, unless space is Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, incredibly expensive, I cant imagine why anyone would decide the best method is sometimes leave it out and sometimes add it in. a. The following sentences or sentence fragments do not have different or ambiguous meanings without the final serial comma, but theyre really bulky and philosophy, are therefore easier to The Growth Essay, follow with a final comma:

The authors are affiliated with the Medical School, the Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology and Laboratory and what happened chilean, Industrial Products, Inc. If you cant admit this sentence reads very awkwardly with so many and Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, s and would be improved by collapsed lyrics, the insertion of Neural Plasticity: Essay a final comma, you have much worse problems than following the wrong comma style. This is characterized by the disruption of polarized tubular epithelial cell morphology, de novo mesenchymal gene expression and determinism philosophy, actin reorganization and increased cell migration and invasion. There are four noun phrases separated by three and s, and Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, not a comma in sight. Movie Review? Foolish and awkward. The middle pair of noun phrases ( mesenchymal gene expression and actin reorganization ) are both phenomena that happen for the first time ( de novo ) during the process in question, and the last two noun phrases ( cell migration and invasion ) are both modified by of Learning, increased . Put a comma before the second and collapsed lyrics, , and it looks like a normal sentence that an Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay English speaker might be proud of flowers quotes writing. EMDB was established by the Protein Databank in Europe (PDBe) at the European Bioinformatics Institute, the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) at of Learning Essay Rutgers and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) at Baylor College of Medicine. The other group of BMDMs was co-treated with CHX and IC for 2 h and 11 h, 4 h and 13 h or 6 h and 15 h, respectively. A final comma would make the separation between these long, bulky noun phrases a little easier to flowers quotes, follow. b. Of Learning Essay? Many sentences Ive encountered are asymmetric and unbalanced because some items of the list are much longer than others and determinism philosophy, the last two items arent separated by a comma. This leads us to temporarily group the last pair of items together when they should be separate.

For this reason, the lists are awkward and Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, occasionally difficult to flowers quotes, follow, and they disrupt the readers expectation of clarity, cadence, and flow. The pits are then removed from the flesh of the fruits, dried and planted immediately. pods with seeds, pods without seeds, seeds and seeds without the embryonic axis were harvested. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 min at room temperature, rinsed and Neural Essay, blocked with 20% goat serum for determinism, 60 min at room temperature. fixed in Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, paraformaldehyde, decalcified and movie review, embedded in paraffin. the position and Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, shape of the gandhi review, occluder and The Growth, of the cda jason, residual shunt around the occluder, the ventricular size and heart systolic function should be observed. The criteria for diagnosing PA were based on the comprehensive elevation of Plasticity: The Growth Essay histological and clinical symptoms, their alleviation by anti-rejection therapy and graft biopsy. OCT can generate three kinds of images: traditional (similar to the ones generated by ultrasound), color and inverse (demineralized areas appear in for algernon quotes, hues of gray or black on a white background) The aqueous layer (1 mL) was precipitated in 1 mL of isopropanol on ice for The Growth of Learning, 12 hours, vortexed and centrifuged for 30 min at 4C and 13,000 rpm. Data collection and analysis, biopsy and surgery.

The tissue was deposited on a single histological slide, identified and chilean, fixed with sprayed solution. I think I understand the authors point, agree and Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, would like to share my understanding for review. Thirteen adolescents aged 1318 years with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, 19 parents and gandhi movie, 9 health-care professionals participated. The problem with all of those lists is that the last and/or second-to-last item is much shorter than at least one other item in the list, leading our minds to Plasticity: Essay, group two separate items together because of and Child Prostitution their shortness and the lack of a comma separating them. A comma between each pair of items in the list would put all items on equal standing regardless of The Growth of Learning Essay length, would give each item its own slot between commas or bookending the Sex Trafficking Essay, list, would make the separation between items clear, and would make each list more symmetrical, balanced, and measured. The imbalance created by the disparate lengths of the The Growth of Learning Essay, lists items can be largely or even completely eliminated by Sex Trafficking and Child, the placement of a comma to mark the separation between each pair of Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay items.

The way they are, those lists often require re-reading so our minds can perform the mental separation that the authors were too dense to provide on the page. It is simply impossible to deny that those lists would be made clearer and flowers quotes, less awkward with an Oxford comma. c. These are good examples of how the consistent use of the Oxford comma can avoid temporary confusion as to the meaning of a sentence: In addition to endogenously synthesized cholesterol, the Plasticity: The Growth, absorption of dietary cholesterol and the reabsorption of cda jason bourne biliary cholesterol in the small intestine also contribute to the regulation of the plasma cholesterol level. If the author of this sentence is not a habitual Oxford comma user, the reader doesnt know if endogenously synthesized cholesterol, the absorption of dietary cholesterol and the reabsorption of Neural of Learning Essay biliary cholesterol in the small intestine is a list of three items, or if the comma separates an Essay introductory phrase from an Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay independent clause beginning with two noun phrases. It turns out quotes it was the latter. If the Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, reader knows the author is consistent in his use of the final serial comma, there would (should) be no confusion. Cases and controls did not differ significantly in age, weight, history of gastric reflux or GI bleeding, type of determinism AB therapy or use of concomitant NSAIDs, anticoagulants or corticosteroids. That is a ridiculous sentence that is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, difficult to follow because of the lack of Oxford commas before the last two or s. You might say, Ah! But this is a strawman!

The problem is the lack of semicolons, not Oxford commas! No, that sentence is perfectly clear with Oxford commas but no semicolons: Cases and controls did not differ significantly in Prostitution, age, weight, history of gastric reflux or GI bleeding, type of AB therapy, or use of Plasticity: of Learning concomitant NSAIDs, anticoagulants, or corticosteroids. As is made clear by the Oxford commas, the only individual item in that list that contains commas is the last one. In such cases it is and Child Essay, almost never necessary to separate the Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, items of the review, list with semicolons. After screening, wash-out of The Growth of Learning RAAS blockers if needed and philosophy, informed consent, patients were. I dont know about you, but that sentence was temporarily confusing the first time I read it, and today when I browsed my ever-growing list of Oxford commaneeding sentences to find some more good ones to add to this guide, this sentence initially confused me again. The Growth? Id wager that few people would clearly understand this sentence on first read without the Oxford comma but that many people would (scientists, anyway) with it.

Its true that if needed could be surrounded by gandhi, commas, but this is not necessary. What is necessary for ease of reading is the comma after it. cyclosproine A (CsA)/tacrolimus (TAC), MMF and prednisone. That is supposed to The Growth Essay, be a list of three different treatments. If that isnt clear to you, it isnt because you arent a scientific researcher and arent familiar with the terminology; its because the authors left out a necessary comma. The three treatments are supposed to be an option of CsA or TAC, MMF, and prednisone. However, without the comma, it looks like it could be two treatments: CsA or TAC, or MMF and predisone (or even CsA+TAC or MMF+prednisone). Heat-shock proteins play important roles in maintaining proteins in their functional conformations, stabilizing and preventing aggregation of proteins and refolding denatured proteins, which are important for cell survival in chilean miners, stressed conditions.

That is supposed to Neural Plasticity: Essay, be a list of three roles played by heat-shock proteins, but it looks kind of like a single function (maintaining proteins in their functional conformations) followed by two sub-functions in apposition to that first function. In other words, it looks like you could replace the first comma with by and convey the same meaning. This ambiguity might not be completely eliminated by an Oxford comma here or in flowers, every other sentence containing a list, but it would make ambiguity much less likely. d. Neural Plasticity: The Growth? The meanings of the following sentences are impossible to determine definitively without a properly placed final comma: My favorite dresses are yellow, red and black and green. It is impossible to collapsed, know if the last two dresses were a red one and a black and Neural Plasticity:, green one or a red and review, black one and The Growth, a green one. Essay? The Oxford comma easily solves this ambiguity. Its true that English has no (perfect) way of clarifying a similar sentence with only Neural Plasticity:, two dresses (My favorite dresses are yellow and collapsed lyrics, red and Neural Essay, black), but that doesnt mean we shouldnt clarify three-item lists with Oxford commas when we do have an opportunity to.

The team focused on hiring and training, setting and meeting deadlines, reorganization and expansion and visibility in the retail market. Which efforts were focused on the retail market? Visibility, or expansion and visibility? Everything the hypothetical team or company does isnt necessarily directed at cda jason bourne the retail market, so some of their efforts could be business-to-business, and some activities could simply apply to internal affairs. Without the final comma, it is Plasticity: The Growth Essay, not clear what the expansion and visibility efforts refer to. Plant peroxisomes play a physiological role in the biosynthesis of the signaling molecule jasmonic acid, ?-oxidation of collapsed indole-butyric acid and sulfur and polyamine metabolism. Which process does the sulfur belong to? Is it part of the ?-oxidation, or does it go with polyamine metabolism? You have to know what ?-oxidation is to know that it cant be applied to sulfur, but this comes from technical knowledge, not from anything the sentence conveyed. Without prior, specialized knowledge, it is not possible to determine the Neural of Learning, meaning of this sentence as written.

I know no sentence is written in a vacuum, and you have to have some knowledge of the context and the meaning of the words to understand any sentence, but that doesnt mean the sentences shouldnt be punctuated properly to express their meaning correctly regardless of the audience. The above sentences dont convey their intended meaning regardless of your specialized knowledge, and the reason for this is their lack of the final comma. HCC subgroups were stratified according to tumor stage, vascular invasion or lymph node metastasis or tumor size. This is yet another real-life example from bourne, a paper that I have lost track of (if you find it, send me the URL so I can cite it). Vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis are supposed to be two alternate criteria used to stratify subgroups, and tumor size was the last one. Without the serial comma, it is impossible to express this definitively. Here are two other real-life examples whose sources Ive lost track of: document content, legal aspects and procedures and registration. PMCA1 , NCX1 , and Plasticity: of Learning Essay, NCKX4 could be the targets of miR-714, miR-762 and 135a*, and movie review, miR-712*, respectively. [This last one did have both Oxford commas, thankfully.

Its a great example of how they can be absolutely necessary.] In summary: just insert the damn Oxford comma. Its not a waste of space, its usually clearer, it makes the The Growth of Learning Essay, list more symmetrical and cda jason bourne, balanced, and once in a while it will be the only way to clearly convey your meaning. Finally, lets talk about the appositive caveat I mentioned above. Wikipedias article about the Plasticity: of Learning, serial comma gives a good example of the ambiguity that often results from forgoing the final comma Consider the possibly apocryphal book dedication quoted by Teresa Nielsen Hayden: To my parents, Ayn Rand and gandhi, God. There is ambiguity about the writers parentage, because Ayn Rand and God can be read as in apposition to my parents, leading the reader to believe that the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, writer refers to Ayn Rand and God as his or her parents.

A comma before and removes the ambiguity: To my parents, Ayn Rand, and God. and a similar example of ambiguity that can result from collapsed lyrics, including the final comma: To my mother, Ayn Rand, and God. The serial comma after Ayn Rand creates ambiguity about the Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, writers mother, because the proper-noun phrase Ayn Rand could be read as in flowers quotes, apposition to my mother (with the commas fulfilling a parenthetical function), resulting in the interpretation To my mother (who is Ayn Rand) and to God. While it is true that the latter ambiguity could be solved by the author having some sense and Neural Plasticity: Essay, including or omitting parentheses and collapsed lyrics, an additional to to improve clarity, this doesnt change the fact that it is at least possible to introduce ambiguity with either the omission or the inclusion of the Oxford comma due to the commas other function as the offsetter of appositives. Therefore, this appositive problem solves nothing in the Oxford comma debate, leaving the Oxford comma with a score of Everything Else01 against omitting the comma.

In this sense, one can conclude that the Oxford comma is always at least as clear, as I wrote above, if not in The Growth, every case , then at least with every issue . Clearly, the inclusion of the final comma in lists is more versatileis, in fact, universally appropriatewhereas the absent-comma option quite frequently yields sentences that are harder to follow or even impossible to interpret, making it less appropriate some percentage of the time and therefore not suitable to be called a rule at all. We therefore do have a serial-comma rule that we can follow all the time, so it is foolish to institute a personal preference of including or omitting it on a case-by-case basis. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on bourne, this topic, and there never will be. Its important not to Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, find one person or web page who tells you what you want to hear and go with that. For instance, some people who act like they know what theyre doing dont even know the definitions of the words number and determinism, numeral . (Those morans got it exactly backwards. Id be embarrassed if I were them.) A number is an abstract concept for Neural Plasticity: of Learning, a quantity, and what to the, a numeral is Plasticity: The Growth Essay, a written symbol for expressing that quantity. Roman numerals and Arabic numerals are two examples of different ways of expressing the miners, same mathematical concepts (numbers).

A word, made up of letters, is another way to express a number in The Growth of Learning, writing. In the most formal writing, it is determinism, basically never appropriate to of Learning Essay, use a numeral. If youre doing that kind of writing, youre probably not reading this because youre already an accomplished writer, grammarian, and/or editor. Other style guides allow numerals for Sex Trafficking Prostitution, years and Neural Plasticity: Essay, really long numbers (in the for algernon, millions or billions, for example). In scientific or technical writing, different publishers have different preferences, but those might not always be available or exhaustive. In the absence of an Neural Plasticity: The Growth available style guide or clear rule for your specific needs, here are the determinism, rules that I think are the Plasticity:, most agreed-upon and best for when numerals are allowed in formal scientific writing, so that you dont have to spend too much time worrying about whether youre being formal or consistent enough: Use numerals for all numbers with more than one digit. This includes decimals and fractions. Any time you use a numeral for a certain noun (for instance, when that noun has a quantity of 10 or more), you can use a numeral for the same noun in the same sentence, even if the other number is less than 10.

Example sentence: The two largest groups contained 12 and 8 people , respectively. Other things being equal, you would normally write eight instead of 8 , but people is modified by Sex Trafficking and Child Essay, both 12 and 8 in Neural The Growth, this sentence, so to be uniform, its okay to collapsed lyrics, break this rule and write the smaller number the same way you write the Plasticity: of Learning, larger number. Determinism Philosophy? On the Neural Plasticity: of Learning, other hand, groups is only modified by one number ( two ), so it must be written as a word. On the third hand, it is acceptable to maintain document-wide uniformity and write eight the same way you do every other single-digit number in every other sentence. A similar type of situation is the use of an integer and a decimal together: Normally you might write 2-fold as two-fold (though there are style guides that treat fold as a unit like % or other measured quantity), but in combination witheven in the same sentence asthat decimal, you must use a numeral. An abbreviated unit (kg, mM, h, %, etc.) requires a numeral; inversely, spelled-out numbers require the unit to be written out in full. This is only relevant at determinism the beginning of sentences.

That is, if you have to spell out the word at the beginning of the sentence, you cannot use an Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay abbreviation for the unit. This might feel a little awkward when you have to collapsed lyrics, write Ten microliters of PCR product was added , but it looks a hell of a lot better than beginning a sentence with 10 ?L . Neural Plasticity: Of Learning Essay? This often results in what to the chilean, having two equally acceptable alternatives: Ten microliters of Neural of Learning PCR product was added When the number modifies any measured or counted unit of time, it is acceptable to use a numeral. Often units of time are abbreviated, but you or the lyrics, publisher might not want to abbreviate them, such as hour , day , week , or month . Plasticity: The Growth? This might only be relevant to scientific publications, where many numbers and measurements are used, whereas other writings dont contain a lot of numbers and would look fine with occasional numbers written as words. In scientific papers, this rule helps avoid the awkwardness of using abbreviations in such examples as at the bourne, 1-mo time point or the 3-d samples. It should be acceptable to use a numeral with a non-abbreviated unit, like 1-month and Neural The Growth Essay, 3-day , which is flowers for algernon quotes, clearer and less weird-looking, is often more uniform with all the other single-digit numerals used in the methods and results sections, and is consistent because units will always be preceded by numerals. Other counted nouns in scientific papers, such as group or mouse , are not units, so their numbers follow the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, other rules of formal writing. In the for algernon, name or label of a group, time, disease, or several other things (note that these come after the noun): day 2 [the publisher might require number-words before units of Neural Plasticity: The Growth time, like two days , but never in the label of a time point]

The functions of the hyphen, the en dash, and the em dash can be summarized easily: the hyphen compounds, the en dash connects, the em dash separates. Therefore, if you dont wish to collapsed lyrics, compound two things into Plasticity: of Learning, one, then dont use a hyphen. a. The function of the hyphen. The hyphen is a compounder or combiner. It is very versatile and is woefully underused in the modern English-speaking world. When a two-word phrase consisting of an adjective and a noun is used as a single adjective, it should usually be hyphenated: The hyphen between the adjective and the noun can be unnecessary or even incorrect when the adjectivenoun pair is a single, two-word entity, almost like a proper noun or a name: Nervous system development. Also, two nouns that are used as a single descriptor (adjective) can often be hyphenated, though I am unable to discern a rule defining exactly when a hyphen is appropriate between the review, two nouns and when it isnt. Neural? (My rule is: its appropriate when its clearer.) Often we might think of the first noun as fulfilling the happened to the, function of an adjective, the second noun as a noun, and Plasticity:, the combination of the gandhi movie, two as a single, compound adjective. Air traffic was so dense that afternoon that air-traffic control could hardly cope. Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning Essay? (Hat tip: BBC.) She has been with her computer-programmer boyfriend for lyrics, two years.

I have a lot of science-nerd friends . The DNA-methylation differences were more subtle than the protein-phosphorylation ones. This doesnt seem to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, be always appropriate or necessary, though: Skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Cell cycle regulation (I also often see cell-cycle regulation) Data analysis program (but data-analyzing program) Flow cytometry analysis (though I strongly advocate flow-cytometric analysis, which is nounadjective, so theres that) Infinitive phrases and prepositional phrases almost always must be hyphenated when they precede their noun but must remain un-hyphenated when they follow their noun:

The teacher gave us some easy-to-remember rules. The rules were easy to remember . The Atlanta-to-Houston flight. The flight from Atlanta to quotes, Houston. He had a lot of The Growth of Learning Essay built-up anger. His anger built up for a long time. The on-call physician is collapsed, Dr. Smith. Heres an example thats always bothered me. Why do radio stations claim they are new?

Or that they are the new #1 hit music station? I know stations that have literally been around for Neural Essay, four or five years that still use that same damn slogan. But the grammarian in me thinks, Well, if you hyphenate the words properly, the statement could still be technically correct A new-#1-hit music station is a music station that plays new #1 hits. (Presumably they play other things, too, seeing as how there is only one #1 hit at lyrics a given time.) A new, number-1, hit-music station is a radio station that plays hit music, is Neural The Growth, new, and is the number-1 station in movie, town. If you can point to a single radio marketing employee in the entire United States who knows the difference between the two or could punctuate either one of those sentences properly, I have a newborn unicorn and a shiny pot of gold to give you. Adverbial modifiers (adverbadjective or adverbadverb combinations) should not be hyphenated, except in cases where the The Growth, adverb can also be an adjective in other situations (e.g., well , better , best , fast , high , hard , little , many others) and what to the chilean, the compound modifier precedes its noun: A highly talented violinist. The most often recommended remedy [adverbadverbadjective!] The least easily recognizable member of the group. A fast-acting drug.

The best-recommended remedy. Over-broad but overly broad (a preposition made into an adverb!) A poorly defined mechanism. A well-defined mechanism [ well-defined comes before the noun, so it should be hyphenated] A mechanism that is well defined [ well defined comes after the The Growth, noun, so it cannot be hyphenated]

A relatively unknown protein. A protein that is better known. The best-known member of the group. He is what chilean miners, best known for his accomplishments in The well-known chef opened a new restaurant. The new restaurants chef is well known . When numbers like the following are written out in words, they must be hyphenated (the word and is also verboten !): One hundred sixty-four. Three thousand four hundred ninety-nine. Any usage of the prefixes self or ex must be hyphenated: When a prefix ends with the same letter that the base word begins with, or the Neural Plasticity:, non-hyphenated compound word is likely to be read wrong for another reason, its usually best to hyphenate the Prostitution, compound word: anti-inflammatory instead of Plasticity: Essay antiinflammatory (though proinflammatory is okay) pro-oncogenic instead of prooncogenic (though antioncogenic is okay) de-ice instead of for algernon quotes deice, which is never okay.

re-sign instead of resign; these are two different words with different meanings. post-translational looks a lot better than posttranslational, though I guess both are fine. Dangling hyphens are good to use when multiple prefixes precede the same base noun but you dont want to repeat the base noun every time, or when you want to of Learning, attach a single prefix to multiple base nouns but dont want to repeat the prefix every time. macro- and microeconomics. pre- and post-WWII. Ron Pauls anti-Obama, -McCain, -Clinton, and happened to the miners, -Bush campaign. I particularly liked this example from the The Growth of Learning, EDline editors mailing list, cited by cda jason, Wikipedia: a large number of adjectiveswere used to describe [ships protected by iron or steel armor]: iron- or steel- or armor-plated, -cased, -clothed, -sided , and many others. That Wikipedia article on the hyphen is quite good and long, so I recommend reading it for a fuller description and explanation of its uses.

b. The function of the en dash. You thought the Neural, hyphen was underused; most people dont even know the en dash exists! Such a shame. The en dash (, HTML character code # 8211; or ndash ;) is a connector and a comparer. Its the what happened to the chilean, neglected middle child between the hyphen and the em dash. (The em dash is The Growth of Learning, what we normally think of when we think of a dash, .) So named because it was roughly the Prostitution Essay, width of the capital letter N in many fonts, the Plasticity: of Learning Essay, en dash is collapsed, used to signify a range, to connect things, and to of Learning, replace the hyphen in happened to the miners, compound adjectives of more than two words (see part c.) Wikipedia has a really good article on dashes. In the more traditional, first two uses, the en dash replaces the word to or and : allowed to grow for 23 days, not 2-3 days, because you mean 2 to 3. doseresponse curve, not dose-response curve, because it is a dose-and-response curve; there is no such thing as a dose-response.

cellcell communication, not cell-cell, because you mean cell-to-cell; there is Neural Plasticity: Essay, no such thing as a cell-cell. Remember that the hyphen would combine the two words into philosophy, a single cell-cell, whereas the en dash connects two different cells. AtlantaHouston flight, not Atlanta-Houston flight, because it is an Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Atlanta-to-Houston flight; there is no such place as Atlanta-Houston. The hyphen would combine the two places into one region, like Alsace-Lorraine or Schleswig-Holstein; the en dash connects these two separate places. bloodbrain barrier; there is no such thing as a blood-brain. President Jimmy Carter ( 19771981 ) Lastly, the minus sign looks identical to the en dash on most computers and word processors, so it is best to write negative numbers with an en dash instead of a hyphen: It is what happened to the, important to note that if youre giving a range of Neural Plasticity: negative numbers, or any other times it might be confusing to the reader, you cant use the determinism, en dash to specify a range: 15 to 20 (negative fifteen to negative twenty) 15 to 20 (negative fifteen to twenty) c. Compound modifiers that require an en dash to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, perform the function of a hyphen. The following types of constructions require an philosophy en dash and cannot use a hyphen because one side or another of the compound adjective has two words or already contains a hyphen: embryonic stem cellfocused research [With a hyphen, it would be conveying the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, idea of the noun phrase cell-focused research being modified by embryonic stem, which doesnt really make sense.] high pressuresensitive component.

mouse organellespecific component [It is collapsed, specific to mouse organelles, not a mouse component that is specific to organelles] nongovernment-based [Meaning not government-based] maltose-binding proteintagged antigen [Meaning an antigen tagged with maltose-binding protein, not an antigen that is maltose-binding and is protein-tagged] small RNAdependent scaffold [the scaffold isnt small and dependent on RNAs; it is dependent on Plasticity: Essay, small RNAs] interstress fiber space [I dont know what inter-stress would mean, but inter is a prefix to a two-word phrase, so it must be followed by an en dash, not a hyphen] Contrast the first example with a re-writing that uses ESC as an abbreviation for embryonic stem cell. It has the same meaning but requires a hyphen, not an en dash, because the hyphen is preceded by only one word: Im not 100% positive that this is right, but I think its best to use a hyphen instead of an en dash in these types of phrases where the full term and its parenthetical abbreviation (or a clarifying word in parentheses) precede a hyphen, if and only if they are both one word: MitoTracker (MT)-stained cells. tyrosine (Tyr)-phosphorylated proteins. I dont think it would be wrong to use an en dash instead in those examples.

If your phrasing calls for a dangling hyphen or en dash, simply use them the way you normally would if they werent dangling: the high pressure and Sex Trafficking, heat-sensitive gauge, not the of Learning, high-pressure- and heat-sensitive gauge. the angiotensinogen II and cda jason, VEGF-induced effects. Theres also the classic example of Bart Simpson asking the following to Mrs. Krabappel: How would I go about creating a half-manhalf-monkeytype creature? Or: How would I go about creating a half-man, half-monkeytype creature? Either way uses an en dash before type. The take-home message, which bears repeating: The en connects, the em separates, and the hyphen compounds. This is of Learning, one of my biggest pet peeves in bourne, the world because it is so ridiculous. Why do people say literally when they mean its exact opposite , figuratively?

Here are some examples Ive encountered that I can remember: My boyfriend literally hit the ceiling. We have literally created a monster. This is literally a tortoisehare situation. (Michael Wilbon, Pardon the Interruption , December 14, 2009, on the late-surging Chargers posing a potential threat to the 13-0 Colts, should they meet in Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, the playoffs.) People, please learn what the word literally means, and dont use it foolishly. Despite what complex and collapsed lyrics, specific rules your grade-school textbook or teacher might have tried to make you memorize, only two simple rules are needed to Plasticity: of Learning Essay, determine whether to philosophy, add s or just the after a noun that ends in Plasticity: Essay, s : If the word is review, one syllable, always add s . If the word is multiple syllables, then spell it how you pronounce it. Dont let anybody tell you those rules are insufficient or too lenient.

If a general prescriptivist like me tells you to ignore the other pseudo-rules that people may throw at you, you know its OK to. Many times, we would add s to a two- or three-syllable word because the word ends in a hard S (the voiceless S or voiceless alveolar fricative or [s]) or in spite of the fact that it ends in a soft S (or [z] or voiced alveolar sibilant fricative) because it is short enough to sound better with that extra s syllable added to Neural Plasticity:, the end of happened to the chilean it. Charless (Charles always counts as one syllable, so Charles is always wrong) Dickenss (Id prefer to pronounce it this way, possibly because I err on the side of adding the s to proper nouns whenever it seems remotely reasonable) Mr. Rogerss Neighborhood and Mr. Rogers Neighborhood are equally correct because you could pronounce it either way. Socratess sounds better than Socrates in Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, every phrase I utter to myself, but I cant really explain why. Illinoiss constitution (you would add the s sound, which is absent in the states name, so Illinois seems pretty foolish and cda jason bourne, counterintuitive to me) mens clothing (mens is not a word, so mens is always wrong) Venus fly trap and Venuss fly trap seem equally correct in writing, though we only pronounce it the first way. But in other Venus possessives that arent common names of plants, we would add the extra s syllable in Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, speech.

You wouldnt pronounce Venus orbit identically to Venus orbit, would you? No. And Child Prostitution Essay? So add the Plasticity: Essay, s . for goodness sake probably never needs an s ; we certainly wouldnt pronounce it that way. for appearance sake and for conscience sake are never anything remotely approaching acceptable, despite what the idiots at the New York Public Librarys Guide to Style and Usage would have us believe. If it doesnt end in determinism, s , then of course you have to Essay, add s to make it possessive!

This is an example of when Latin roots do matter in bourne, English usage. At least, they should. The Latin prefix bi- means two, and the prefix semi- means half. Therefore, a biannum is two years and a semiannum is a half-year. A biweek is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, two weeks (a fortnight!) and a semiweek is a half-week. From this it is and Child Prostitution, easy to Neural Plasticity: of Learning, see that biannual means happening once every two years, whereas semiannual means happening every half-year (twice per bourne, year). Biweekly means happening once every two weeks, and semiweekly means happening once every half-week (twice per week).

The same for Plasticity: of Learning, bimonthly and semimonthly . Its not that hard to gandhi, remember, and Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, not that hard to understand. We have two perfectly clear prefixes that mean two different things, so use them correctly. Would you want to publish a paper that said a cancer drug should be administered semimonthly when you meant every two months? Increasing the frequency of drug administration 4-fold might very well kill the patients. Or, in the other direction, decreasing the frequency of cda jason administration of a drug 4-fold might eliminate the drugs effect. What would people think of you if you couldnt get such a basic difference straight?

What would you think of someone who couldnt learn the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, meanings of two simple words and use them correctly in a scientific paper? As such is not a generic synonym of therefore or consequently or anything like that. It is bound by one specific grammatical rule: the such has to refer to an earlier noun or noun phrase. In other words, before writing as such , ask yourself: As what ? The such is the answer to what . Quotes? If the previous thought specifies a noun that such would refer to, then it is okay to write as such ; if not, then use therefore or something similar. Correct: I am a scientific editor for Neural of Learning, non-native English speakers, and as such [as what? as an determinism editor for non-native English-speaking scientists], Ive collected mainly biology-related examples of grammatical errors. Incorrect: I am a scientific editor for non-native English speakers, and as such , my examples of grammatical mistakes are mostly biology-related. [This doesnt make sense because my examples does not refer to any antecedent noun.] Correct: She is the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, only player on the team who is any good at pitching.

As such [as what? As the gandhi, only one whos good at pitching], she doesnt get to play shortstop or third base, her favorite positions, as much as she wants. Incorrect: No one else on the team is The Growth Essay, good at pitching. As such [as what? as the concept of being good at pitching? as the concept of and Child Essay being bad at pitching? as no one else? there is Neural of Learning, no antecedent that such could refer to], she doesnt get to play shortstop or third base, her favorite positions, as much as she wants. Incorrect: She is the only player on the team who is philosophy, any good at pitching. As such , a girl with a much weaker arm usually has to play third base. [This doesnt make sense because As such does not connect a girl with a much weaker arm to Neural of Learning Essay, any preceding noun.] In summary, as such connects (equates) one noun to a previous one. Collapsed? If the two nouns arent identical and the statement you made about the Plasticity: of Learning Essay, first noun doesnt lead directly to the second statement being true, then as such is wrong. Lets take these in alphabetical order. The single-word version anymore has a temporal meaning, expressing still, now, or nowadays.

It is an adverb that is Sex Trafficking and Child Prostitution Essay, synonymous with any longer and usually appears at the end of a clause: I hope we dont have to attend those boring meetings anymore . I wonder if it will be cold anymore this spring. In contrast, the two-word adjective phrase any more has a quantitative meaning, referring to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, the amount or number of stuff or things under discussion: I hope we dont have any more boring meetings. I wonder if we will have any more cold days this spring. Take-home message: if you could replace it with any longer, the one-word version is correct; if you are referring to a quantity or number of a specific noun, the two-word version is required. any one vs. anyone.

This one is easier because anyone is synonymous with anybody and any person, whereas any one always refers to bourne, any single one of Neural The Growth Essay [some nouns]: I dont know any one of those people. Does anyone still watch that show? Is any one of those shows worth watching? The first distinction to remember is that any time is an adverb phrase used to mean any amount of time: Do you have any time to meet tomorrow?

Sure, that wont take any time at all. I havent spent any time practicing lately. In contrast, anytime is an adverb used to happened, mean whenever or at any time: I can meet with you anytime tomorrow. That should be easy to do anytime . Anytime I can practice, I do. The second distinction between these two adverbs is that following the preposition at, only the two-word any time can be used. Because of this rule, the Neural The Growth Essay, two-word any time can mean any length of time (distinction 1) or, only after at, any point in time (whenever). Sex Trafficking Prostitution Essay? The take-home message: if preceded by at, only any time is acceptable; otherwise, use any time to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, mean any length or amount of time and anytime to philosophy, mean any point in time or whenever. every day vs. everyday.

This one should be easier than people seem to Neural The Growth, make it because the two-word every day is an adverb, whereas the one-word everyday is quotes, only an adjective: The take-home message: Because everyday is only an adjective, it can only appear before a noun, modifying that noun. If you want to put one or the other at the end of a clause or sentence, saying when or how often something happens, the two-word adverb every day is needed. This distinction is very similar to any time vs. Plasticity: The Growth? anytime . Cda Jason? First, lets consider the versions without the final s . Some time is an adjectivenoun pair that means some amount or length of time: This is going to take some time . Lets take some time tomorrow and talk about it. Well have to make up some time by resting less. The one-word adverb sometime means at some point in time or at a yet unspecified time: This has to get done sometime . Lets talk about it sometime tomorrow.

We have to stop and Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, rest sometime . There is also another way to use sometime as an adjective, before nouns. Flowers For Algernon Quotes? In this sense sometime means: 1. having been formerly, former: The diplomat was a sometime professor of history at Oxford. 2. being so only at Neural Plasticity: The Growth times or to flowers quotes, some extent: Traveling so much, he could never be more than a sometime husband. 3. that cannot be depended upon regarding affections or loyalties: He was well rid of his sometime girlfriend. [examples shamelessly stolen from Now lets consider the versions with the final s . The two-word adjectivenoun phrase some times is simply the plural version of some time : Most times work for me, but some times are impossible. Most runners performed as expected, but some times seem dubious. [This ones a little contrived, but you get the point.]

The one word adverb sometimes means occasionally, at times: I only like drinking sometimes . Sometimes grammar can be fun! In summary, the The Growth, two-word phrase some time(s) is a normal, run-of-the-mill adjectivenoun pair, whereas the one-word adverbs sometime and for algernon, sometimes tell when or how often things happen, with sometime also being available as an adjective for fancy-pants writers who probably dont need this grammar guide. The first lesson to Plasticity: Essay, learn about the verbs lay and lie is and Child Prostitution Essay, that lay is Neural The Growth, a transitive verb and flowers for algernon, lie is an intransitive verb. Neural Plasticity: The Growth? A transitive verb must take an object, meaning the verb must be performed by an actor upon some other noun: Lay down your book. When are you going to gandhi review, lay that issue to rest? As I lay myself down to Plasticity:, sleep. An intransitive verb does not take an object, meaning the subject just performs the collapsed lyrics, verb without acting upon any other noun: The book is lying on the table. As I lie down to sleep.

In the third example of each verb above, the presence or absence of an The Growth of Learning object (myself, my body, me) determines what verb can be used, even though they mean basically the same thing. If you said, Im laying on my bed, someone might properly ask, Laying what on your bed? The only reason any of this gets difficult is because English is stupid and the past tense of lie is lay . Essay? Well, the past tense of (to tell a) lie is lied , but the past tense of lie (down on something) is lay (down on Neural Plasticity: Essay, something) . Last night as I lay in determinism, my bed. As soon as the dog lay down on the floor. The treasure lay undiscovered for Neural Plasticity: The Growth, centuries. The past tense of lay is cda jason bourne, laid , so that shouldnt be hard for anyone to figure out how to use. Note, finally, the Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, past participle of lie is lain : Having lain down to sleep. After the cda jason, dog had lain down on the floor.

The treasure has lain undisturbed for Plasticity: The Growth Essay, centuries. In summary, yes, youd be right to label English as a stupid, overly difficult language for making lay the past tense of lie and to Sex Trafficking and Child Prostitution, complain about this not becoming regularized (i.e., the Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, past tense of lie always being lied regardless of meaning) sometime soon. Who and whom are both pronouns, but who is Sex Trafficking and Child, a subject and whom is an object. The best way to determine whether to use who or whom is to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, either ask or answer who is meant by either pronoun: if you would substitute the who or whom with a subject pronoun like I , he , she , we , or they , then who is flowers for algernon, needed; if you would substitute the who or whom with an Plasticity: The Growth Essay object pronoun like me , her , him , us , or them , then whom is needed. The patients, most of whom were examined by MRI [You could say most of gandhi movie them were examined] The patients who were examined by Neural Plasticity:, MRI [You could say they were examined by MRI] Hes started dating a girl whom he met in what happened miners, class. [Whom did he meet?

He met her.] Who is that girl hes dating? [Answer the question: She is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, that girl hes dating.] The decision between who/whoever and whom/whomever can get tricky when the pronoun is the subject of a verb (i.e., the who/whoever is doing something in collapsed lyrics, the sentence in addition to being the Neural, object of an action). In those cases, who/whoever is required, although very slight wording changes would make whom/whomever correct. I couldnt decide whom to vote for. [Whom would you vote for? You would vote for determinism, him or her.]

I couldnt decide who was the best candidate. [Who was the best candidate? He or she was.] You can go with whomever you choose. [Whom would you choose? You would choose him or her.] You can go with whoever you think is best. [Who do you think is best? You think he or she is of Learning Essay, best.] Ask whoever is in charge. [Who is in determinism philosophy, charge? He or she is.] You can just ask whomever you want. Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay? [Whom do you want to movie, ask? You want to ask him or her.] In these last three who examples, even though the who clauses are serving the function of objects, you cannot separate the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, who from its verb; the to the chilean, who must remain in the nominative case, meaning the subject form, not the object form, because the who is performing an Neural Plasticity: of Learning action.

Subjects perform actions, not objects. Rewording those sentences by removing the who s verb will convert it back into a normal object and into gandhi review, the whom version. It should also be noted that basically no grammarians require clause-initial whom , so a lot of sentences in which the rule requires whom would not be considered wrong if who were used, e.g., Who is he dating?, Who would you vote for?, and Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, Who would you choose? Of course it is. It has never been wrong to split infinitives in Sex Trafficking, English. This was a pseudo-rule that has fixed itself as a misconception in the minds of many young schoolchildren and bad writers. A split infinitive is the infinitive form of a verb ( to + verb) with some word in between the to and the verb. Because it is a waste of my time to Neural Plasticity:, even explain any more about this or give a brief history lesson about lyrics why some overzealous teachers of grammar ever thought it was wrong to Neural of Learning, split infinitives, Ill limit this section to shamelessly borrowing other peoples examples of why it can be necessary to split infinitives occasionally: The greatest difficulty about cda jason assessing the economic achievements of the Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, Soviet Union is that its spokesmen try absurdly to review, exaggerate them; in consequence the Plasticity: of Learning Essay, visitor may tend badly to underrate them. (Fowler, 2nd ed., 1893) We expect our output to cda jason, more than double in The Growth, a year.

She decided to gradually get rid of the teddy bears she had collected. Cda Jason? [If you think get rid gradually or rid herself gradually sounds better than the The Growth Essay, wording of this example sentence, then you have far worse problems than following irrelevant, useless pseudo-rules of grammar.] Berkeley, Wordsworth, Shelley are representative of the intuitive refusal seriously to accept the abstract materialism of review science. [I mean, honestly, come on.] My first three booksmark the beginning of this development, for it was only as I was writing them that I began systematically to explore childhood. If no appropriate inputs are presented during this period in their lives, songbirds lose the of Learning, ability fully to supplement what was not acquired, and their later behaviour is gandhi movie, significantly affected. He was never ashamed publicly to Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay, bear witness. To re-emphasize: It was never wrong to split infinitives, and it is often wrong and gandhi movie, counterproductive to follow the pseudo-rule against it. Yes, but be sure no confusion could result from this, because since also has a temporal meaning.

The use of causative since is best and most common at the beginning of a sentence, but it can be equally correct and, at Neural of Learning Essay the same time, equally tricky in the middle of a sentence, again due to its primary meaning of in the cda jason bourne, time that has passed. Here are some examples of sentences with since in perfectly fine causative roles: Since the knockout mice have no embryonic defects, that gene is not necessary for development. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. [Copied from the Purdue OWL, a highly esteemed grammar guide.] Since the Neural of Learning Essay, store was really crowded, I tried to get in and Child Prostitution Essay, and out as fast as possible. We might as well walk home since its nice outside. He couldnt understand why she broke up with him, since it was going so great the week before.

There are, however, many instances in which since can be ambiguous between its temporal and causative meanings (which is no doubt why some strict grammarians insist on Essay, its never being used causatively). In these cases, change since to gandhi movie, because or re-word the sentence so that since becomes a preposition instead of a conjunction. Since the CEO died, the company has been making excellent profits. [Is it because the CEO died, or just since that time? Here, Since is being used as a conjunction (before a clause), so if you mean its temporal sense, change the clause the CEO died to a noun phrase: Since the CEOs death. If you mean Because , then write Because the CEO died or Because the old CEO is gone or Due to the CEOs death.] Since we have been investigating the effects of Plasticity: The Growth this drug, we have received a lot of attention from notable researchers in our field. [Does this mean theyve received attention ever since they began investigating it, or theyve received attention because they have been investigating it (which doesnt imply anything about when the attention beganit could have been only recently). To express the determinism philosophy, temporal sense, some re-wording is necessary: (Ever) Since we began investigating. To express the causative sense, just begin with Because .]

Finally, ambiguity aside, since is often better replaced with because in the middle of sentences because the Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, latter is more clear and direct: I did poorly on the test since because I hadnt studied enough. I couldnt call her back since because I didnt get her number. We decided to cda jason bourne, investigate the mechanism in cultured primary cells since because these have important differences with the immortalized cell line. When youre inclined to write Since at the beginning of Neural The Growth of Learning a sentence, make sure no ambiguity could result from chilean miners, its dual meanings. And when youve written since in the middle of of Learning Essay a sentence, especially preceded by a comma, see if because with no comma wouldnt work better. Every grammar and usage guide I can find says both are fine to start sentences in Sex Trafficking Essay, the most formal academic and legal writing. This article by general prescriptivist Bryan A. Garner is a fine summary of the issue. The (prescriptive) grammarian whom Garner seems to Plasticity:, idolize the most is Englishman H.W. Fowler, who called the proscription against flowers, sentence-initial And and But a fetish and an ungrammatical piece of nonsense.

In that article, Garner says he and other usage guide writers prefer to change However to But at the beginning of a sentence and that however only sounds good between commas after the first clause. I definitely disagree with that, and I will note that the flow of the paragraph often makes However (always followed by a comma) sound better than But at Plasticity: of Learning the start of some sentences. And I strongly dislike however surrounded by commas in the middle of a sentence because it is more often confusing and awkward than simply starting the sentence with However . This is gandhi movie review, because sentence-initial However introduces the contrast immediately and leaves the rest of the sentencethe actual contrasting statementuninterrupted, whereas mid-sentence , however, not only waits to introduce the fact that theres a contrast but interrupts the train of thought conveyed by The Growth, the things that come before and after it. Finally, the only thing about sentence-initial And and But that every guide proscribes is gandhi review, putting a comma after the Plasticity: The Growth Essay, word as if it were an adverb or interjection. Only put a comma after it in rare cases when some other clarifying or introductory phrase immediately follows it. So dont listen to any pedantic fetishist who wants to gandhi review, outlaw And and But at the beginning of sentences in any context or in Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, any type of document. But dont overdo them, either. Quotes? In formal writing, one every few hundred words is plenty.

When you use a verb to describe a nouns state of being, to describe a characteristic of Neural The Growth Essay that noun, the verb must be followed by cda jason, an adjective, not an Plasticity: of Learning adverb, because youre really modifying the noun, not the verb. The most common, though possibly most overlooked, state-of-being verb is (obviously) to be , but they also include seem , look , appear , smell , feel , taste , sound , etc. Its pretty annoying when someone says they feel badly or something smells badly, because those verbadverb pairs mean something different from their intent. For some reason, this mistake seems to be made most often with the collapsed, adverb badly . I feel bad . This means you feel sorrow, guilt, regret, or some other negative emotion. Bad is modifying I , not feel . I feel badly . This means your sense of Plasticity: Essay touch isnt very strong or discriminating, and using your hands to feel for something isnt effective. Badly is modifying feel , not I . That dog smells bad . This means the dog has a bad odor. Bad is review, modifying dog , not smells . That dog smells badly . Neural Of Learning? This means the dogs sense of smell is poor, so he isnt good at smelling things. Bourne? Badly is modifying smells , not dog . This food tastes good (not well). He seems honest (not honestly). The building looks weak (not weakly).

She appears hopeful (not hopefully). Question begging or begging the question is a logical fallacy that means circular reasoning; assuming your conclusion in your premises. The Nizkor Project gives some good examples of Neural Plasticity: question begging: Bill: Because the Bible says so. Jill: Why should I believe the Bible? Bill: Because the Bible was written by God. If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law. The belief in God is universal. After all, everyone believes in God. Interviewer: Your resume looks impressive but I need another reference.

Bill: Jill can give me a good reference. Interviewer: Good. But how do I know that Jill is trustworthy? Bill: Certainly. I can vouch for her. If you mean raise the what to the, question , urge the question , or prompt the question , then say one of those.

They take the exact same amount of Neural Plasticity: The Growth time and syllables and actually convey what you mean. The word between has the same Old English roots that twain and gandhi, two have, hence the mistaken assertion that between can only Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, be used to relate two nouns or ideas. True, when you are referring to review, two things, among is wrong, but that doesnt mean between can only Neural The Growth of Learning, be used for determinism, two nouns. Rather, the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, difference between their meanings is more subtle and interesting than that. As noted in quotes, Garners Modern American Usage , the Oxford English Dictionary best clarified the true distinction between between and among : In all senses between has been, from its earliest appearance, extended to more than two. It is still the only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and Neural The Growth, individually; among expresses a relation to bourne, them collectively and Plasticity: The Growth Essay, vaguely. Garner later states it as: between expresses one-to-one relations of gandhi many things, and among expresses collective and undefined relations. In many uses, among expresses a relationship similar to amid . Ive come into Neural The Growth of Learning, your plansand between the three of you, as wellbut I couldnt help it. (Stephen King, Wizard and Glass ) the relationship between children and their parents. He walked between the trees vs. He walked among the trees. Essay? [Different meanings.] the space lying between the three points.

correlations between disease stage and Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, age, gender, comorbidities, and medications. My aunts and lyrics, uncles have 10 children among them. The three thieves divided the Neural Essay, loot evenly among themselves. Garner quotes an interesting example, the appropriate balance between family, solitude and community, but Im not sure I agree with that one. Gandhi Review? Im not going to tell Garner or most other accomplished writers, editors, or grammarians theyre wrong, but I dont see why the appropriate balance among family, solitude and community would be sub-optimal in that sentence. Plasticity: Essay? Between usually implies a unidirectional or bidirectional relationship between two things, between one thing and several other things individually, or between individual pairs of a group of things. I dont see the relationship of family, solitude, and community as any type of individual or pair-wise relationship, nor as any series of pair-wise relationships; I see it as a balance of all three things simultaneously, which is for algernon, exactly what the word among is for. If three thieves divide loot among themselves, then I think a balance would be struck among family, solitude, and community.

The best summary Ive seen is that farther means more distant whereas further means just more/to a greater extent. For this reason, when referring to Neural The Growth Essay, a metaphorical distance or separation, further and farther are interchangeable. He lives farther away than I thought. That was the farthest home run hes ever hit. [ Longest would be synonymous] I just ran farther than I ever have without stopping to rest. What Happened To The? [ Longest would be synonymous but unwise because long also has a temporal meaning] How much farther is Neural, it until the next rest stop? Due to quotes, time constraints, I wont speak further on this matter.

Just as the rain abated, lightning caused further delay. Further studies are warranted. before we go any further / farther. Some students are falling further / farther behind. Further can also be a verb, but farther cannot: to further a cause.

to further your own interests. This must be the cornerstone issue in the descriptivist vs. prescriptivist debate. Descriptivists will point out Neural Plasticity: The Growth that disinterested used to mean both not intrigued, bored, indifferent and impartial, unbiased, having no stake in the matter and gandhi movie, that uninterested actually originally meant unbiased and only acquired its bored, indifferent sense in the 1700s. Well, to The Growth, me, Grammar Girl, and Bryan Garner it seems imprecise and sloppy to have the words overlap so much and basically be interchangeable for the bored, indifferent meaning when we have the for algernon quotes, option of using them distinctively. Why use disinterested to mean uninterested when we already have a word for this purpose that looks and sounds remarkably like uninterested ? It cant be denied that 17th- and 18th-century purists would have been equally right (or wrong) to make the exact opposite argument. And I would have been on their side then as well. Plasticity: The Growth? Im on the traditionalist, purist, or prescriptivist side of this issue now because I (along with many others) see the words as meaning different things and I see the benefits of preserving their distinction. It seems a beneficial prescription for more precise usage to use different words to mean different things when you have that option. Here are some examples of their distinct usage: In any criminal case, a disinterested judge is highly desirable. For a more accurate evaluation, we need a disinterested third party to arbitrate.

The students seem uninterested in the subject matter. She was uninterested in cda jason, hearing my excuses. Descriptivists also note that the use of Plasticity: of Learning Essay either of these words rarely creates ambiguity in context, so I guess were left pointing out cda jason bourne that the benefits of Plasticity: The Growth Essay distinction come more in the realm of Sex Trafficking and Child logic and Neural Plasticity: of Learning, purity than clarity and flowers for algernon quotes, meaning. Finally, check out the entry on disinterest vs. uninterest , above disinterested and uninterested , in Garners Modern American Usage . It didnt occur to me that there would be a need for Neural, different entries on the two forms of the words, but I think its interesting and useful. In the contexts where like and as can be confused, like is a preposition and as is a conjunction. Cda Jason? Therefore, like should come before a noun phrase, and as should come before a clause (i.e., containing a noun and a verb). As I said [not *Like I said]

As I was saying [not *Like I was saying] Appearing and disappearing as only Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, Batman can. I studied as I had never studied before. [Note that as if/as though would change the meaning, and like would be ambiguous because it could imply either of what happened these meanings!] Hes sleeping like a dog. No one can play the guitar as Jimi Hendrix could. No one can play the guitar like Jimi Hendrix. Albert Pujols got off to a slow start, just as he does most years.

Albert Pujols got off to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, a slow start, just like previous years. The knockout mice did not respond as the wild-type mice did. The knockout mice did not respond like the happened chilean miners, wild-type mice. As most people do, I distrust politicians. Like most people, I distrust politicians. There are many instances where like needs to be replaced with as if or as though because a clause follows, but I recommend limiting such nit-pickiness to formal writing: He looks as if/as though hes really struggling.

It looked as if/as though it was going to rain. He acts as if/as though the world were going to end. I added this to my grammar guide because a lot of non-native English speakers seem to have trouble with this one. Plasticity: The Growth Essay? They often put a preposition after both or either when in fact it belongs before. (This actually is a black-and-white issue of grammar, not a matter of style or word choice or language change, in which there is quotes, definitely a right and a wrong word order.) In English, it is important to keep lists parallel . Parallelism means, basically, the items of a list are grammatically interchangeable, meaning you could switch their order and retain a grammatically correct sentence. For example, the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, following sentence is ungrammatical: *This was observed both in and Child Essay, the control group and the treatment group.

The items that come after the word both must be parallel . Of Learning? This means you could switch the order of the individual items and happened chilean, the sentence would mean the same thing and be grammatically correct. How do you identify these individual items? First, they start after the word both or either , i.e., the both or either is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, not part of the list and is not part of the what to the chilean miners, parallel elements. Plasticity: The Growth? Second, these individual elements are the phrases separated by determinism, commas and conjunctions. In the example above, there are no commas and only one conjunction: and . The first item that comes after both is in Neural The Growth Essay, the control group , and the second item is the treatment group . Notice that one of these phrases has a preposition, in , and the other does not. That means the two items of this list are not parallel, because observe what happens if you switch their order: *This was observed both the treatment group and in the control group. That sentence is not possible in English. It is ungrammatical. To make it an English sentence, we have to gandhi review, switch both and in so that what comes after both is a parallel list (with perfectly interchangeable items): This was observed in both the Plasticity: of Learning Essay, control group and the treatment group.

This was observed in both the treatment group and collapsed lyrics, the control group. In sentences with both and a single preposition, the both is what precedes the start of parallelism. If you want a single preposition to apply to all of the items of the parallel list, the preposition must come before both . Alternatively, you could use the same preposition twice if you wanted, in which case it must come after both to Plasticity: The Growth, retain parallelism: This was observed both in Sex Trafficking and Child Prostitution, the control group and in the treatment group. This was observed both in Neural Plasticity:, the treatment group and in Sex Trafficking and Child, the control group. Similarly, if you want to use different prepositions for each item of the list, then you cannot put one of Neural those prepositions before both : He likes to listen to audiobooks both at home and on Sex Trafficking Prostitution, the road. He likes to listen to audiobooks both on Plasticity: of Learning Essay, the road and at home. This was observed both before and bourne, during treatment. This was observed both during and Plasticity: Essay, before treatment.

The exact same is true of either , which takes the collapsed lyrics, conjunction or : No side effects were observed in either the Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, control group or the treatment group. No side effects were observed in either the treatment group or the control group. We analyzed the tissue by either CT or MRI. We analyzed the tissue by cda jason bourne, either MRI or CT. I put an Neural The Growth of Learning asterisk before If X would have happened because it is collapsed lyrics, ungrammatical. Neural Essay? I hear it and see it all the time, which doesnt make it grammatical or acceptable. The speakers meaning is still understandable, but it sounds uneducated because thats not how English verb tenses work. To express the possibility of something having happened in the past that didnt actually happen (i.e., a counterfactual), English uses the past perfect tense, which requires the auxiliary verb had . Not has or have ; only had : If the what chilean miners, Patriots had won , they would have reached their sixth Super Bowl in Neural of Learning Essay, 12 seasons.

If I had remembered to bring my book, I would have been less bored on flowers quotes, the plane. If I had known it was so important, I would have come earlier. If he hadnt made that left turn at Albuquerque, he wouldnt have gotten lost. If she hadnt trained so hard, she would have lost the race. In summary: it is ungrammatical to present a counterfactual possibility with * If [noun] would have . The conditional construction would have can only be used to present the result or outcome of a counterfactual that is presented elsewhere in the sentence (or, I guess a previous sentence). The If [noun] had and If [noun] hadnt constructions are used to present the hypothetical scenario that something happened in the past that did not in fact happen. Some phrasal verbs that consist of Neural Plasticity: of Learning a verb + in determinism, or a verb + on cannot be changed to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, verb + into or verb + onto . I have no rule or even guideline for when the latter is inappropriate except that sometimes it just is (why is any preposition right but another wrong?), but I see it somewhat frequently.

Here are a few examples to help you avoid that mistake: You log in (or log on ) to a computer, not *log into Prostitution, (or *log onto). When youre done with the Plasticity: The Growth, paperwork, hand it in to me (not *hand it into me). Turn your project in to the professor as soon as its finished (not *Turn it into the professor). Ive been slow to catch on to all the nuances (not *catch onto). Lets move on to the next topic (not *move onto). She was the cda jason bourne, one who turned me on to classical music (not *turned me onto). Sometimes using into instead of in can be correct, for Neural The Growth of Learning, instance, with the verb zoom . Collapsed Lyrics? Zoom can be used in Plasticity: of Learning, several ways in 21st-century English, mainly: (1) to move quickly or suddenly with a humming or buzzing sound; and (2) with in or out , to increase or decrease the movie, viewing magnification of a document, subject, or scene, simulating getting closer to or farther from it, respectively.

In this Sports Illustrated column by Andy Staples, he uses the single-word verb zoom correctly and Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, adds the preposition into to state where Chip Kelly would be zooming: Kelly cant zoom into Philadelphia, promise to flowers, Win The Day and merrily roll along. whereas this use of The Growth of Learning zoom into would be incorrect: If you *zoom into that part of the lyrics, picture, we can analyze it better. For more effective, precise writing, use eager when you mean looking forward to Plasticity: of Learning Essay, something with enthusiasm or desire and anxious when you mean nervous, worried, or distressed about what to the a potentially negative upcoming event or experience. This distinction is Neural Plasticity: of Learning, easy to remember because anxiety means a state of uneasiness or apprehension, such as about and Child Essay future uncertainties. Each pair of sentences below mean different things: Im eager to meet this girl Brian wants to introduce me to. Im anxious to meet this girl Brian wants to of Learning Essay, introduce me to.

Im eager to for algernon quotes, see what I got on the test. Im anxious to see what I got on the test. Im eager to meet my students on Plasticity:, my first day at my new school. Im anxious to meet my students on my first day at my new school. Im eager to philosophy, see my family this Thanksgiving.

Im anxious to The Growth, see my family this Thanksgiving. The reason this is a confusing usage issue is movie, that people often use anxious when they mean eager in casual conversation. To be honest, in contrast to my invented examples above, when anxious is used in Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, its distressed, worried sense, it typically follows a different structure than eager , at least in everyday speech: We often say we are anxious about determinism philosophy something, whereas we are eager for something or eager to do something. Neural Plasticity: Of Learning? On the other hand, when people unwisely use anxious to mean eager , they often phrase it in the same way they would if they had used eager , with for cda jason bourne, or an infinitive verb after it. So if we were going to rephrase my anxious examples above according to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, common usage in speech, but still use the word correctly, they might look like this: Im anxious about meeting this girl Brian wants to flowers, introduce me to. Im anxious about getting this test back. Im anxious about meeting my students on Neural Plasticity: The Growth, my first day at my new school. Im anxious about collapsed seeing my family this Thanksgiving. But what about sentences with different structures from Neural of Learning, these? In those cases, there is no preposition after anxious to provide clues as to which meaning was intended.

You have to convey your meaning by, yknow, using the right word : He boarded the plane eagerly . She felt anxious as she turned into determinism, the driveway. My anxiety grew as my first day of work approached. His eagerness had faded after all that had transpired since the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, announcement. Whats worrisome is flowers, that this poor usage has spilled over into writing all too often, in publications that I would have thought had higher standards than that. For instance, Michael Gerson writes in the Washington Post, The end of The Growth of Learning childhood, of collapsed lyrics course, can be the start of adult relationships between parents and children that are rewarding in their own way. Im anxious to befriend my grown sons. And Robert Talbert writes in his blog at Plasticity: The Growth of Learning the Chronicle of movie review Higher Education, Second, Im teaching my first upper-level course since arriving at GVSU, one section of our Modern Algebra course, which I have not taught in a few years and I am anxious to get into it. We can tell from The Growth of Learning, context that Gerson definitely meant eager , and Im about 95% sure Talbert meant eager . Why didnt they use eager , then? Good question. Its an unfortunate point of history that anxious has come to mean two completely opposite things to some English speakers, and its even more unfortunate that so many smug ultra-descriptivists practically trip over themselves in their rush to proclaim how non-judgmental they are.

Well, they should be judgmental. They should actually criticize sloppy, ineffective usage once in a while. They wouldnt recognize ineffective usage if it jumped off the gandhi movie review, page and smacked them in the face. As a final note, I see that both and the American Heritage Dictionary even give as a minor definition of anxiety eager but tense desire and eager, often agitated desire, respectively. That surprised me because I am 99.99% sure that I have never, ever heard or seen anxiety used in that way. Im extremely skeptical that many American English speakers would consider that a standard use of Neural The Growth anxiety . I wonder if the dictionaries felt compelled to add that as a minor definition because of so many peoples misuse of anxious ; I can imagine them thinking, Uh-oh, sticklers are pointing out that anxious shouldnt mean eager because anxiety doesnt mean eagerness ; well, well just fix that by adding a new definition for anxiety . I just cant accept that that definition is standard without a lot more personal experience to back it up. Blagging (4) Books (7) Career (3) Children (3) Computers (3) Entertainment (44) Food (5) Freakin#039; sweet (18) Grammar (10) Hawwt (1) Humor (23) Interwebs (20) Language (15) Life (16) Linux (2) Math (15) Morans (13) Movies (1) Music (14) Science (11) Sports (18) Technology (15) Theorems (3) TV (8) Uncategorized (4) Writing (18)

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Skills Analysis Audit Template Management Essay. As I was part of a media project of Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, which I had to work with a team, As a group member Being able to movie be approachable is a very significant part of being able to work with others.If one member of your group requires help then as a associate, you must show other group associates that you can show your support by being helpful and determined to help them. One momentous aspect that I have come across which is vital as to be approachable is Neural Plasticity:, Partaking your ideas and getting involved . To be able to accomplish the task each team member involved needs to be able to coalesce their efforts. If each team member does their do well at the job that has been given to them,what this means is flowers, that it augments what the team can achieve. The understanding and appreciation of teamwork must be acknowledged by each person and comprehend that immense things can occur if each individuals are able to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay act upon the fundamentals and efforts collectively as a unit. Each team member has their own inimitable role, but each person's position has to be acknowledged and respected. Active cooperation through each member of the group is of the essence to team victory. Prostitution Essay? Team members should not be lazy and do nothing and permit other individuals to do the job; they should work and be motivated to do their own work to attain team. (For example, expressing your ideas, explaining something complicated) Key words: listening, enthusiasm, clarity, pertinence, confidence. The way i approached giving advice to a customer at a retail clothes store, was being able to Neural The Growth of Learning make the customer feel compfortable and doing my best to answer any enquiries.

It. The importance of communication can be determined by how fluent one presents information and ideas. The negatives of my communication skills could of been impediment within myself, people tend to give off-putting body language e.g scratching there heads, in so this may show customers that they have a lack of and Child Essay, understanding and communication ability. Another key factor of being able to communicate is having self belief and mindsets, by Plasticity: The Growth having this will limit one from determinism thinking too much and feeling less confident. To be able to communicate with the Neural customers correctly i had to Sex Trafficking and Child Essay be able to communicate decisively and accurately. Words are pronounced and spoken with suitable tone of volume.when communication with customers the use of slang, whispering quitely, or mumbling does not specify confidence in communication.awareness of self-confidence is also arbitrated by the physical characteristics of Neural Plasticity: Essay, a employee. Essay? Usually Self confident communicators provide work for common eye contact, an open stance, and a firm handshake. These gestures may be seen as minor byt they go a lengthy way to give emphasis to a inviduals comfort level and also there self-confidence in themselves. 3. Judgement and decision making.

(For example, choosing which assignment to do, which information to include in a project) Key words: decisiveness, research, planning, reaching a conclusion, evaluation. When im in a situation where im trying to choose which assignment to do it can be very difficult to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning do as you could piled up with many important to complete.When someone is hesitant, predominantly when you're in a situation of pressure, you are not precisely going to motivate confidence in philosophy, the individuals you work with. If you by no means appear to Neural Essay be capable to attain a judgment you could be tempted to ask somebody that you rely on for their opinion . in the end, when your in a bad situation you cannot always rely on the people around you to tell you what to and Child do. Being decisive is defined as that you look at Neural Plasticity: Essay, all the Sex Trafficking Prostitution alternatives, look at the benefits and reach to a decision. Research is intended to resolve a meticulous existing troubles so readily available is Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, a much larger spectators keen to maintain research that is likely to be profitable. on the whole individuals make decisions without congregatef informations to help them.The main concern is for the most part individuals are not tolerant enough to for algernon place in The Growth Essay, the exertion. The primary stride in planning is to repair objectives which will provide bearing to the actions to be carryed out.

This movement is focused on attention on gandhi movie the results required. 4. Persuading and influencing. (For example, persuading someone to come to a party or accepting your argument) Key words: communication, leadership, negotiation, charisma, motivation, determination, forcefulness, vision, empathy. A good quality method of management, as well as a optimistic advance to contact, guarantees that an worker and The Growth a supervisor appreciate one another, and are supplementary effectual at the place of work. Effective communication in the place of work give employees by means of a apparent consideration of what is insisted from them, with information of Sex Trafficking Prostitution Essay, what to perform and Plasticity: Essay what to be expecting. For association, such a communication approach produce successful show of the employees, and, as a result, augments customer trustworthiness and revenue. nowadays there is collapsed, enormous consciousness of and attention in, contemporary leadership processes.

Effective modern leaders require to have touching strength and compassion further than conventional ideas of more partial despotic management technique. augmented alertness and attention in of Learning Essay, business accountability and to the miners the numerous connected concept. The significance of negotiation in business is an priceless part in any huge business endeavor. In the competitive pasture of business you desire to be certain that the meaning of negotiation in business is not only tense within the company you own or work for, you wish for to Neural stress the outstanding and cda jason bourne vital importance it shows.The magnitude of negotiation in big business can be the dissimilarity connecting companies that succeed and companies that rapidly weaken. There is no open response to the sort of merits that construct a individuals charismatic. It is further concerning what draws you in the direction of the similar person that is eye-catching to other individuals too by asset of different virtues. influence, tone, dialogue, verbal skill, body language, motion, behaviour etc. are various of the Neural of Learning ingredient that can participate between themselves to create the charisma of a human being. Motivation is also a very vital factor when one is movie review, persuading and Plasticity: The Growth influencing another person. Determinism? The reason for Neural The Growth of Learning this significants is because the cda jason bourne other individual that your directing to, has to acknoledge the The Growth Essay fact that your serious about what your particularising on. Hence we find that body language is another fundamental mechanism as to being a persuasive character.

They way of speaking in a persuasive manner can have forcefull impact on the individual when trying influence. When I was in an interview for a retail company, I had to encouragement the employer, by doing this I had to convey up my qualities which forcefully influenced him to lyrics give me the job. Being forcefull does not have a be physical aspect, nevertheless it is something that can be a quality when persuading and The Growth of Learning Essay influencing whilst speaking to a e.g employer, presentation etc. Vision is believed to be a characteristic of movie review, a leader. The two main aspects that are, to be internally inspired and internal or external motivated. Being able to have a strong vision of the end result is one of the most imperative steps to success whether in your career or normal day life etc. One also finds that when someone has vision , it can also bring inspiration to someones career path meaning that new ideas open new doors.

5. Plasticity:? Ability to lyrics solve problems. (For example, maths assignments, coping when team members don't pull their weight) Key words: critical thinking, analysis, lateral thinking, creativity) Working in a music video(media project) One of the main objectives that I came across in this media project was that one of my main roles was to help the members of the team be able to Plasticity: of Learning work with eachother. 1. I had to Set a target for the team to begin with.

2. My second step was to make sure that each person that is contributing must have interest and equal opportunity in review, wanting to achieve this target. For them to be able to The Growth of Learning Essay do this they must keep away from bourne assigning more work to some team members than others, the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay reason why they should avoid this is because this can generate thoughts of cda jason bourne, envy and The Growth Essay condescension. To be able to happened miners make unity within the team, everybody will need to feel equally important. 3.They had to also be able to Create a teamwork mind-set by presenting appreciation to the whole group and not just to one member of the group when a good idea is shown. This is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, a very significant aspect as it grips the entire group responsible and decreases rivalry among members in the group.

4. I had to and Child arrange a conflict resolution strategy by assembling a list of techniques, which particularises once and in what way these problems, will be fixed. For instance, the strategy may necessitate that the members meet for 20 minutes each week for the detailed purpose of The Growth of Learning, unravelling group complications. The strategy must demand for flowers for algernon quotes the team to rapidly work with each other to locate a solution and not placing denunciation. 5.To apply activities with the group can also be another positive outcome. These casual events can also strengthen the relationship between each member of the Plasticity: The Growth Essay group. (For example, ensuring your assignments are done on time) 1. Time is limited.A Time is a very special resource in that you cannot store it or save it for later. Everyone gets the exact same amount of time each and every day. Collapsed? If you don't use your time wisely, you can never get it back. 2. Time is scarce.A Most people feel like they have too much to Plasticity: of Learning do and not enough time. Lack of time is blamed for everything from not getting enough exercise, poor finances, unachieved goals, too much stress, bad relationships, and even an unfulfilled life.

Time management helps you use the time that you do have in better ways. 3. You need time to and Child Prostitution Essay get what you want out of life.A You need time to do almost anything worthwhile in life. Waiting for more free time is a loosing game that almost never results in getting time for Plasticity: of Learning what you want. You need to learn how to make time for the things that are important to you. Happened Miners? Even if you can only afford to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay give a small amount of time each week to your goals, you'd be surprised at how much progress you can make. 4. You can accomplish more with less effort.A When you become more productive using improved time management skills and tools, you can accomplish more with less effort. Reducing wasted time and effort gives you even more productive time throughout the day. Both of these allow you to make time for Sex Trafficking a wide range of activities that bring more balance and fulfillment to your life.

5. Too many choices.A In this day and age, there are so many ways you can spend your time, that you need some sort of plan to make intelligent choices. Time management helps you make conscious choices so you can spendA moreof your time doing things that are important and valuable to you. (For example, word processing a report, using a specialist package to solve a maths problem) The use of IT has become something of what important in day to day life, including coursework assignments and other IT aspects related. The develpoment of Neural Plasticity:, my IT skills has increased due to the high demands of usage of movie, work assignments that had been handed to me when doing my A-levels by by means of the world wide word processing program which is known as microsoft word. The importance of acknowledging how to use it, is nowadays a neccessity to all students, for the reason that it is Neural Plasticity: Essay, almost obliged that all students should be using a form of a word processor for the likes of determinism, coursework to be transmitted to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning markers so it can be marked in an easier approach. The world of IT is collapsed lyrics, a very significant part of a students life, as the Plasticity: The Growth Essay term information technology is now regarded as a neccessity not only for writing up essays but also for determinism philosophy doing research on the internet. 8. Achieving your goals. (For example, getting enough votes to The Growth Essay be elected to a role in society) Key words: determination, commitment, will-power, resolution, stamina, ambition, energy, resilience. Companies have goals, but it's management and employees that accomplish them.

That's because the company is made up of people and it's those people that give it life and make it what it is. Cda Jason? Without encouraging your employees in the right way of setting and The Growth of Learning Essay achieving goals, the company will never reach its goals. Too often, managers take for granted that employees know what the managers expect them to do - what is to be done, by whom and when. Job descriptions only tell employees what their duties are. It doesn't describe standards or priorities.

For instance, the service department knows they are to for algernon follow up if a customer has a false alarm problem. However, without set goals, standards and priorities, questions arise. Should the Neural of Learning service department follow up after the first false alarm or the second? If it's the customer's fault, how should they handle it? Should they follow up again in six months? What does the company specifically hope to accomplish by Sex Trafficking and Child Prostitution next year? That's why goals are so important. Goals express to employees what you expect of them. Goals tell them how their performance will be evaluated, and on what basis they will be rewarded. For managers, goals help them to know where people are investing their time and energies and how well they are doing.

9. Specialist subject knowledge. The first lesson in The Growth of Learning Essay, media education is that nothing is objective-each and every media production is created with a viewpoint and for a purpose. The reality depicted in film or television productions is the result of many choices and each of for algernon, these choices is based on the experience, knowledge and bias of the producers involved. To date, very few films and TV shows featuring Aboriginal people have been written or produced by Aboriginal people-and it shows. The ownership of a TV station or newspaper, the makeup of its management team and its political leanings will all have an impact on who is interviewed on a current affairs program, which experts are chosen for sound bites on an issue, and whose perspectives are ignored completely. When Aboriginal voices are heard, it's almost always on Aboriginal issues and rarely on general topics affecting society as a whole. In which skills can you offer plenty of examples where you are using the skill? Presentation skills is a huge factor and can be used in of Learning, different times and occasions. Being able to determinism philosophy present is a significant factor as it shows charactor and The Growth of Learning confidents to the opposite position. To The Miners? For example Working professionalsA are required to come up with a presentation during a company or department meeting.

If you are a working individual who may be just starting out in your career or who is already at the height of Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, your profession, you need to determinism learn the basics of presentation skills and understand its importance. Regardless of your position or designation in your office, you should be ready in anything that may be required of Neural Plasticity: Essay, you to do such as making a presentation. In which skills do you have no evidence? The skills that i believe have which have no evidence are my motivations skills.The purpose of self-motivation is nature's way of getting us to our goals. The importance of having goals means always having a place to go with our latent energies. Self-motivation will be of little benefit to you if you have no place or purpose to direct it in.

Having a goal will not only philosophy, give you a constructive outlet to direct your energies, it will also work to add more to your energy level. The result you get is momentum. All successful people have the power of Neural Plasticity: Essay, momentum working for them at cda jason bourne, one time or another. The main thought to keep in Neural Plasticity: The Growth, mind when choosing a goal is to make the goal a constructive one. Gandhi Movie Review? Your goals should never be anything, unethical, immoral or harmful to others.

You can prove this to yourself, by observing the Neural Essay crowded prisons and flowers for algernon quotes jails. Neural The Growth? Many of flowers for algernon quotes, these people motivated themselves, but toward wrong, immoral and unethical purposes.

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All Work and No Pay: The Great Speedup. Illustration: Mark Matcho. Update (9/3/2015): The US economy has roared back since the Great Recession, but many employees are grappling with the same overwhelming crush of work that was a hallmark of the downturn. The phenomenon has fueled an extraordinary rise in corporate revenues, but it has also stretched workers to the breaking point. Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning. Here’s why: On a bright spring day in a wisteria-bedecked courtyard full of earnest, if half-drunk, conference attendees, we were commiserating with a fellow journalist about all the jobs we knew of that were going unfilled, being absorbed or handled #8220;on the side.#8221; It was tough for all concerned, but necessaryyou know, doing more with less. His old-school phrase gave form to something we#8217;d been noticing with increasing apprehensionand it extended far beyond journalism. We#8217;d hear from creative professionals in what seemed to be dream jobs who were crumbling under ever-expanding to-do lists; from bus drivers, hospital technicians, construction workers, doctors, and lawyers who shame-facedly whispered that no matter how hard they tried to keep up with the extra hours and extra tasks, they just couldn#8217;t hold it together. (And don#8217;t even ask about family time.) Webster#8217;s defines speedup as #8220;an employer#8217;s demand for what to the, accelerated output without increased pay,#8221; and it used to be a household word. Neural Plasticity:. Bosses would speed up the line to fill a big order, to goose profits, or to flowers for algernon quotes, punish a restive workforce. Workers recognized it, unions (remember those?) watched for and negotiated over itand, if necessary, walked out over it. But now we no longer even acknowledge itnot in blue-collar work, not in white-collar or pink-collar work, not in economics texts, and certainly not in the media (except when journalists gripe about the Neural The Growth, staff-compacted-job-expanded newsroom). Now the word we use is #8220;productivity,#8221; a term insidious in both its usage and creep.

The not-so-subtle implication is always: Don#8217;t you want to cda jason, be a productive member of society? Pundits across the political spectrum revel in the fact that US productivity (a.k.a. economic output per hour worked) consistently leads the world. Yes, year after year, Americans wring even more value out of each minute on Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, the job than we did the year before. U-S-A! U-S-A! Except what#8217;s good for American business isn#8217;t necessarily good for Americans . We#8217;re not just working smarter, but harder. And harder. And harder, to the point where the driver is no longer American industriousness, but something much more predatory.

You have nothing to for algernon quotes, lose but your gains. Productivity has surged, but income and wages have stagnated for Plasticity: The Growth, most Americans. If the chilean, median household income had kept pace with the economy since 1970, it would now be nearly $92,000, not $50,000. Click here for 9 more charts that will make your blood boil. Sound familiar: Mind racing at of Learning Essay, 4 a.m.? Guiltily realizing you#8217;ve been only half-listening to your child for the past hour? Checking work email at a stoplight, at the dinner table, in bed? Dreading once-pleasant diversions, like dinner with friends, as just one more thing on your to-do list? Guess what: It#8217;s not you. These might seem like personal problemsand certainly, the pharmaceutical industry is happy to perpetuate that notionbut they#8217;re really economic problems.

Just counting work that#8217;s on the books (never mind those 11 p.m. emails), Americans now put in an average of bourne 122 more hours per year than Brits, and of Learning Essay 378 hours (nearly 10 weeks!) more than Germans. The differential isn#8217;t solely accounted for by longer hours, of courseworldwide, almost everyone except us has, at least on paper, a right to what, weekends off, paid vacation time (PDF), and paid maternity leave. (The only other countries that don#8217;t mandate paid time off for new moms are Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Samoa, and Swaziland. U-S#8230;A?) To understand how we got here, first let#8217;s consider the Ben Franklin-Horatio Alger-Henry Ford ur-myth: To balk at working hardreally, really hardbrands you as profoundly un-American. Who besides the archetypical Japanese salaryman derives so much of his self-image from self-sacrifice on Neural The Growth Essay, the job? Slacker is one of the most biting insults available in determinism, polite company. And so we kowtow tonay, embracea cultural maxim that just happens to be enormously convenient to The Growth Essay, corporate America. #8220;Our culture has encouraged me to only feel valuable if I#8217;m barely hanging on determinism, to my sanity,#8221; one friend emailed as we were working on this article. In fact, each time we mentioned this topic to someonereader, source, friendthey first took pains to say: I#8217;m not lazy.

I love my job. I come from a long line of hard workers. But then it would pour out of themthe fatigue, the isolation, the Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, guilt. #8220;I am exhausted,#8221; said a #8220;part time#8221; college instructor in Illinois. #8220;I can#8217;t help my son with his homework because I am grading papers until late into what to the chilean the night. I get up very early during the week, skip lunch to save not money but time, and the workload never lets up. My employer uses and abuses full-time employees even more so than those of us that are hourly. My supervisor, for example, runs a large department.

He was just promoted to Neural of Learning, a new, even more demanding position, but his position running the department will not be filled. He will now be doing what is a 60-to-70-hour job #8216;on the side.#8217; I can#8217;t complain of overwork, because everyone is collapsed lyrics, competing to get enough classes to pay the bills. If you lose a class, you lose a chunk of your paycheck. If we can#8217;t handle it, the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, class can always be given to another teacher who will be desperate for the work or money.#8221; Sure, but these are tough timesemployers struggling to survive the recession are just tightening their belts, right? That#8217;s true for some. But in the big picture, the to the chilean, data show a more insidious pattern. Consider the charts above: After a sharp dip in 2008 and 2009, US economic output recovered nicely to near pre-recession levelswe did better than most of our fellow G-7 economies.

But not so American workers : Far more people here lost their jobs, and fewer were hired back once the recovery began, than anywhere else. Now, some jobs always get #8220;rationalized#8221; away, thanks to Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, technological or organizational improvementsan area where, it#8217;s not jingoistic to say, the US has led its European counterparts. But that #8220;productivity gap#8221; has narrowed considerably, and in any case, there certainly was no dramatic tech or efficiency breakthrough between 2008 and 2010 (quiteTwitter/Facebook/FarmVillethe opposite). What about offshoring? That#8217;s certainly a factor. But increasingly, US workers are also falling prey to what we#8217;ll call offloading : cutting jobs and dumping the work onto the remaining staff.

Consider a recent Wall Street Journal story about #8220;superjobs,#8221; a nifty euphemism for employees doing more than one job#8217;s worth of workmore than half of all workers surveyed said their jobs had expanded, usually without a raise or bonus. In all the chatter about our #8220;jobless recovery,#8221; how often does someone explain the cda jason, simple feat by which this is Neural The Growth of Learning, actually accomplished? US productivity increased twice as fast in 2009 as it had in collapsed lyrics, 2008, and twice as fast again in 2010: workforce down, output up, and voilá! No wonder corporate profits are up 22 percent since 2007, according to a new report by the Economic Policy Institute. To repeat: Up. Twenty-two. Percent. This is nothing short of a sea change. As University of California-Berkeley economist Brad DeLong notes, until not long ago, #8220;businesses would hold on to workers in Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, downturns even when there wasn#8217;t enough for them to dowould put them to movie review, work painting the factorybecause businesses did not want to see their skilled, experienced workers drift away and Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay then have to go through the what happened to the miners, expense and Neural Plasticity: Essay loss of training new ones. Gandhi Movie Review. That era is over. These days firms take advantage of downturns in demand to rationalize operations and increase labor productivity, pleading business necessity to their workers.#8221; How does corporate America have the gall?

You pretty much know the answer, but for Neural Plasticity: The Growth, official confirmation let#8217;s turn to lyrics, Erica Groshen, a vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York: It#8217;s easier here than in, say, the UK or Germany #8220;for employers to avoid adding permanent jobs,#8221; she told the AP recently. #8220;They#8217;re less constrained by traditional human-resources practices [translation: decency] or union contracts.#8221; In plainer English, here#8217;s Rutgers political scientist Carl Van Horn: #8220;Everything is tilted in favor of the employers#8230;The employee has no leverage. If your boss says, #8216;I want you to come in of Learning Essay, the next two Saturdays,#8217; what are you going to sayno?#8221; And lest CNBC hornswoggle you, this is what to the chilean, not just a product of the recession. Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning. Throughout the miners, past decade, salaries stagnated and workloads grew, but Wall Street#8217;s bubble allowed us to Neural The Growth Essay, drown our sorrows in and Child Essay, credit. ( Sure, I#8217;m working crazy hours and our pension fund is history, but check out my granite countertop! ) Then came the crash, and the speedup#8230;speeded up. Which brings us to another shared delusion: multitasking. Our best efforts at collective denial notwithstanding, simple arithmetic reveals that even after housewives entered the workforce, the work of Neural Plasticity: The Growth Essay housewives still had to be done.

Sure, some of itespecially child carewas outsourced, often at rock-bottom wages. But for many women, and a rising (though not yet sufficient) number of movie review men, the Plasticity: Essay, second shift awaits each night. And it#8217;s increasingly being joined by a third shift, as we remain digitally tethered to the office in the diminishing hours we#8217;re actually home. Multitasking seems the obvious fix let me just answer this email while I help with your homework ! But here#8217;s the scary research news: Minus a few freakish exceptions, most of us cannot actually multitask. Try to keep up a conversation with your spouse while scanning the BlackBerry, and empirical data shows (PDF) that you do both things poorly. And not only that: If you multitask constantly, your actual mental circuitry erodes, and your brain loses its ability to gandhi movie, focus. (Same with sleep: Aside from a tiny minority of mutants, humans perform distinctly and progressively worse when they get fewer than eight hours a night. Go ahead and cry.) Click here for more maps and charts on how Americans are working more and earning less. The Growth. Think you#8217;re the exception? Nope. #8220;Virtually all multitaskers think they are brilliant at flowers for algernon quotes, multitasking,#8221; warns Stanford sociologist Clifford Nass. #8220;And one of the big discoveries is, you know what?

You#8217;re really lousy at Neural of Learning, it. Quotes. [It#8217;s] been demonstrated over and over and over. No one talks about The Growth Essay, itI don#8217;t know whybut in fact there#8217;s no contradictory evidence to bourne, this for about the last 15, 20 years.#8221; Actually, it#8217;s not hard to guess why no one talks about of Learning, it: We need to believe there#8217;s a personal workaround for what we#8217;re conditioned to see as a personal shortcoming. When, in determinism philosophy, fact, the Plasticity: The Growth Essay, problem is the gandhi movie review, absurd premise that our economy can produce ever more with ever less. Plasticity: The Growth Essay. But take heart! Up in the corner offices, there#8217;s a growing recognition that unrealistic demands on determinism philosophy, time are destroying the souls of#8230;executives. Neural Plasticity: Of Learning. #8220;Always-on, multitasking work environments are killing productivity, dampening creativity, and making us unhappy,#8221; notes a recent article in McKinsey Quarterly , the research publication of the giant global consulting firm that has been corporate America#8217;s chief efficiency cheerleader. #8220;These scourges hit CEOs and determinism philosophy their colleagues in the C-suite particularly hard.#8221; McKinsey#8217;s advice to beleaguered execs?

Do one thing at Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, a time; delegate; take more breaks. Just try telling that to the millions of people whose work has been downsized, offshored, and sped up thanks to McKinsey. How have we been so brainwashed? For a lucky few, money and perks help sugarcoat the daily frenzyanything from the workaday onsite gym to lyrics, the rock-climbing wall, free dry-cleaning, massage parlor, and unlimited sushi you#8217;ll find at the Googleplex. Plasticity:. Some heed the siren song of Tony Robbins/Franklin Planner/4-Hour Workweek/Lifehackerpick your productivity guru. Lyrics. But for most Americans, it#8217;s just fearof being passed over at Neural Plasticity: of Learning Essay, best, downsized at worst. Collapsed. Even among college grads, unemployment is twice what it was in 2007, and those statistics don#8217;t take note of Neural Essay all the B.A.#8217;s stocking shelves and answering phones.

McDonald#8217;s recently announced that it had gotten more than a million applicants for 62,000 new positions. Enough said. Meanwhile, what#8217;s passed off as the growing pains of happened to the chilean a modern economy isnot to go all Marxist on Neural The Growth Essay, yousimply about redistribution. For 90 percent of and Child Prostitution American workers, incomes have stagnated or fallen for Neural The Growth of Learning Essay, the past three decades, while they#8217;ve ballooned at the top, and exploded at the very tippy-top: By 2008, the wealthiest 0.1 percent were making 6.4 times as much as they did in flowers quotes, 1980 (adjusted for Plasticity: of Learning Essay, inflation). Movie. And just to Neural Essay, further fuel your outrage, that 22 percent increase in profits? Most of it accrued to a single industry: finance. In other words, all that extra work you#8217;ve taken onthe late nights, the to the miners, skipped lunch hours, the missed soccer gamespaid off. For them. Neural Plasticity:. This will keep up as long as we buy into three fallacies: One, that to feel crushed by debilitating workloads is a personal failing.

Two, that it#8217;s just your company or industry strugglingwhen in fact what#8217;s happening to flowers for algernon quotes, hotel maids and sales clerks is also happening to project managers, engineers, and doctors. Three, that there#8217;s nothing anyone can do about Plasticity: Essay, it. No, no, and no. We got to this point because of decades of miners political decisions. To name but three: turning over the financing of elections to wealthy interests; making it harder for unions to organize; deregulating Wall Street (and completely wimping out on reregulating it after the financiers nearly destroyed the global economy).

And even after having watched these policies bring the global economy to its knees, Mitch McConnell Co. say that any questioning of corporate power is tantamount to rolling out the Plasticity: of Learning, tumbrels. Please. Sex Trafficking Prostitution Essay. It would take a boatload of arrogance, and Plasticity: The Growth Essay an essay four times this length, to prescribe a solution. But suffice it to say there are companies in flowers, the US that have figured out a way to Neural The Growth, thrive and maintain a sane, even engaging, work environment. (Take the what to the chilean miners, policies of Mule Design Studio, a web-design shop with a number of Plasticity: The Growth Essay blue-chip clients: #8220;Our office hours are Monday through Friday 9-6. We do not hand out our cell phone numbers. Philosophy. On the weekend, we cease to exist.#8221;) European companies face the same pressures that ours doyet in Germany#8217;s vigorous economy, for example, six weeks of vacation are de rigueur, weekend work is a last resort, and companies#8217; response to a downturn is not to fire everyone, but to institute Kurzarbeit temporarily reducing hours and snapping back when things start looking up (PDF). Sure, they lag ever so slightly behind us in productivity.

But ask yourself: Who does our No. 1 spot benefit? Exactly. So maybe it#8217;s time to Neural Plasticity: The Growth, come out of the happened chilean miners, speedup closet. Essay. Rant to a friend, neighbor, coworker. Hear them say, #8220;Me too.#8221; That might sound a little cheesy, and it#8217;s not going to lance Mitch McConnell from the for algernon, body politic of America. But if you#8217;re in Neural, an abusive relationshipwhich 90-plus percent of America currently isthe first step toward recovery is to admit you have a problem.

Get the scoop, straight from Mother Jones. Collapsed Lyrics. Clara Jeffery is Editor-in-Chief of of Learning Mother Jones and recipient of a PEN America award for editing. Collapsed. You can follow her on of Learning Essay, Twitter. Monika Bauerlein is movie, CEO of Mother Jones . For more of her stories, click here. You can also follow her on Twitter. Mother Jones is Neural Plasticity:, a nonprofit, and stories like this are made possible by readers like you. Donate or subscribe to help fund independent journalism.

Employment Picture Even Grimmer Than You Think. The Right-Wing Network Behind the bourne, War on Unions. Neural Plasticity: Of Learning. Trump Says It#8217;s the Wrong Time to Discuss Gun Control. In Las Vegas, Even Gun Owners Disagree. Flowers For Algernon Quotes. Puerto Rico#8217;s Poorest Communities Are Doing the Rebuilding the Trump Administration Won#8217;t.

Trump#8217;s Justice Department Says Transgender Troop Ban Is Perfectly Legal. Copyright 2017 Mother Jones and the Foundation for National Progress. All Rights Reserved. We noticed you have an ad blocker on. Support nonprofit investigative reporting by pitching in The Growth, a few bucks. DONATE X.

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essay on trademarks A trademark is a word, symbol, or phrase, used to identify a particular manufacturer or seller's products and distinguish them from the products of another. 15 U.S.C. ? 1127. For example, the trademark Nike, along with the Neural The Growth, Nike swoosh, identify the shoes made by Nike and flowers quotes distinguish them from shoes made by other companies (e.g. Reebok or Adidas). Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning Essay? Similarly, the trademark Coca-Cola distinguishes the cda jason, brown-colored soda water of one particular manufacturer from the brown-colored soda of Neural another (e.g. Pepsi). When such marks are used to identify services (e.g. Jiffy Lube) rather than products, they are called service marks, although they are generally treated just the same as trademarks. Under some circumstances, trademark protection can extend beyond words, symbols, and phrases to include other aspects of a product, such as its color or its packaging. For example, the pink color of Owens-Corning fiberglass insulation or the unique shape of a Coca-Cola bottle might serve as identifying features.

Such features fall generally under the term trade dress, and may be protected if consumers associate that feature with a particular manufacturer rather than the product in general. However, such features will not be protected if they confer any sort of functional or competitive advantage. So, for example, a manufacturer cannot lock up the use of a particular unique bottle shape if that shape confers some sort of functional advantage (e.g. is easier to stack or easier to philosophy grip). Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Inc., 115 S. The Growth? Ct. 1300 (1995). Trademarks make it easier for consumers to quickly identify the source of a given good. Instead of reading the fine print on lyrics a can of cola, consumers can look for the Coca-Cola trademark.

Instead of asking a store clerk who made a certain athletic shoe, consumers can look for particular identifying symbols, such as a swoosh or a unique pattern of stripes. Neural Of Learning Essay? By making goods easier to identify, trademarks also give manufacturers an incentive to invest in determinism philosophy the quality of their goods. Neural The Growth Of Learning Essay? After all, if a consumer tries a can of cda jason Coca-Cola and finds the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, quality lacking, it will be easy for gandhi the consumer to avoid Coca-Cola in the future and instead buy another brand. Trademark law furthers these goals by regulating the proper use of trademarks. Trademarks are governed by both state and federal law. Originally, state common law provided the main source of protection for trademarks. However, in the late 1800s, the U.S. Congress enacted the Plasticity: of Learning Essay, first federal trademark law. Since then, federal trademark law has consistently expanded, taking over much of the ground initially covered by state common law. The main federal statute is the Lanham Act, which was enacted in 1946 and most recently amended in 1996. 15 U.S.C. Determinism Philosophy? ?? 1051, et seq..

Today, federal law provides the The Growth of Learning Essay, main, and by flowers and large the most extensive, source of trademark protection, although state common law actions are still available. Most of the Neural Plasticity: Essay, discussion in this summary focuses on federal law. In order to serve as a trademark, a mark must be distinctive -- that is, it must be capable of identifying the source of a particular good. In determining whether a mark is distinctive, the courts group marks into four categories, based on the relationship between the movie review, mark and Plasticity: The Growth the underlying product: (1) arbitrary or fanciful, (2) suggestive, (3) descriptive, or (4) generic. Because the marks in each of these categories vary with respect to their distinctiveness, the requirements for, and degree of, legal protection afforded a particular trademark will depend upon which category it falls within.

An arbitrary or fanciful mark is what to the chilean, a mark that bears no logical relationship to the underlying product. For example, the words Exxon, Kodak, and Apple bear no inherent relationship to their underlying products (respectively, gasoline, cameras, or computers). Similarly, the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, Nike swoosh bears no inherent relationship to athletic shoes. Arbitrary or fanciful marks are inherently distinctive -- i.e. capable of identifying an underlying product -- and are given a high degree of protection. A suggestive mark is gandhi movie, a mark that evokes or suggests a characteristic of the underlying good. For example, the word Coppertone is suggestive of sun-tan lotion, but does not specifically describe the underlying product. Some exercise of imagination is needed to associate the word with the underlying product. At the same time, however, the word is not totally unrelated to the underlying product.

Like arbitrary or fanciful marks, suggestive marks are inherently distinctive and Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay are given a high degree of protection. A descriptive mark is a mark that directly describes, rather than suggests, a characteristic or quality of the underlying product (e.g. its color, odor, function, dimensions, or ingredients). For example, Holiday Inn, All Bran, and Vision Center all describe some aspect of the underlying product or service (respectively, hotel rooms, breakfast cereal, optical services). Bourne? They tell us something about the product. Unlike arbitrary or suggestive marks, descriptive marks are not inherently distinctive and are protected only if they have acquired secondary meaning. Descriptive marks must clear this additional hurdle because they are terms that are useful for describing the underlying product, and The Growth of Learning giving a particular manufacturer the quotes, exclusive right to use the term could confer an unfair advantage. Assuming that a trademark qualifies for protection, rights to a trademark can be acquired in one of two ways: (1) by being the first to of Learning use the mark in commerce; or (2) by being the movie, first to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning register the mark with the U.S. Patent and quotes Trademark Office (PTO). 15 U.S.C. ? 1127(a).

Remember, however, that descriptive marks qualify for protection (and can be registered) only after they have acquired secondary meaning. The Growth Essay? Thus, for descriptive marks, there may be a period after the initial use of the mark in commerce and before it acquires secondary meaning, during which it is not entitled to trademark protection. Once it has achieved secondary meaning, trademark protection kicks in. The use of a mark generally means the actual sale of a product to the public with the mark attached. Thus, if I am the Sex Trafficking Prostitution Essay, first to sell Lucky brand bubble-gum to the public, I have acquired priority to Plasticity: use that mark in connection with the sale of bubble-gum (assuming that the mark otherwise qualifies for trademark protection). This priority is limited, however, to the geographic area in which I sell the bubble gum, along with any areas I would be expected to expand into or any areas where the bourne, reputation of the mark has been established. So, for example, if I sell pizza in Boston under the name Broadway Pizza, I will probably be able to prevent late-comers from opening up a Broadway Pizza within my geographic market. Plasticity: Essay? But I will not be able to prevent someone else from opening a Broadway Pizza in Los Angeles. The other way to acquire priority is to for algernon quotes register the mark with the PTO with a bona fide intention to use the mark in commerce. Unlike use of The Growth Essay a mark in commerce, registration of a mark with the PTO gives a party the right to use the mark nationwide, even if actual sales are limited to only a limited area. This right is limited, however, to the extent that the mark is already being used by others within a specific geographic area.

If that is the case, then the prior user of the mark retains the right to use that mark within that geographic area; the party registering the cda jason, mark gets the right to Neural use it everywhere else. So, for example, if I register the mark Broadway in connection with the sale of pizza, the existing Broadway Pizza in Boston retains the right to chilean use the name in Boston, but I get the right to use it everywhere else. Although registration with the PTO is not required for a trademark to be protected, registration does confer a number of Neural Plasticity: The Growth benefits to the registering party. 15 U.S.C. ? 1051. As described above, registration gives a party the right to use the mark nationwide, subject to the limitations noted above.

15 U.S.C. ? 1072. Miners? Registration constitutes nationwide constructive notice to others that the trademark is Plasticity: The Growth, owned by the party. Registration enables a party to bring an infringement suit in federal court. Bourne? 15 U.S.C. ? 1121. Registration allows a party to potentially recover treble damages, attorneys fees, and other remedies. Finally, registered trademarks can, after five years, become incontestable, at which point the exclusive right to use the mark is conclusively established. 15 U.S.C. ? 1065. Applications for registration are subject to approval by the PTO. The PTO may reject a registration on any number of grounds. 15 U.S.C. ? 1052.

For example, the PTO will refuse to Neural Plasticity: register generic marks or descriptive marks that have not attained secondary meaning. The PTO can also reject immoral or scandalous marks, certain geographic marks, marks that are primarily surnames, and marks that are likely to cause confusion with existing marks. And Child Prostitution? As noted above, rejection of the mark does not necessarily mean that it is not entitled to trademark protection; it means only Neural Plasticity: of Learning that the chilean miners, mark is not entitled to the additional benefits listed above. 15 U.S.C. ? 1125. Some states also have their own registration systems under state trademark law. The rights to a trademark can be lost through abandonment, improper licensing or assignment, or genericity. Of Learning? A trademark is abandoned when its use is discontinued with an intent not to resume its use. Such intent can be inferred from the circumstances.

Moreover, non-use for three consecutive years is prima facie evidence of abandonment. The basic idea is that trademark law only protects marks that are being used, and parties are not entitled to warehouse potentially useful marks. So, for example, a recent case held that the Los Angeles Dodgers had abandoned rights to the Brooklyn Dodgers trademarkMajor League Baseball Properties, Inc. v. Sed Non Olet Denarius, Ltd., 817 F. Supp. 1103 (S.D.N.Y. 1993). Trademark rights can also be lost through improper licensing or assignment.

Where the Sex Trafficking Prostitution, use of a trademark is licensed (for example, to a franchisee) without adequate quality control or supervision by Plasticity: The Growth of Learning the trademark owner, that trademark will be canceled. Similarly, where the movie review, rights to a trademark are assigned to another party in gross, without the corresponding sale of Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay any assets, the trademark will be canceled. The rationale for these rules is to the chilean, that, under these situations, the trademark no longer serves its purpose of identifying the The Growth of Learning Essay, goods of a particular provider. Dawn Donut Co., Inc. v. Hart's Food Stores, Inc., 267 F.2d 358 (2d Cir. 1959). Trademark rights can also be lost through genericity.

Sometimes, trademarks that are originally distinctive can become generic over time, thereby losing its trademark protectionKellogg Co. v. National Biscuit Co., 305 U.S. 111 (1938). A word will be considered generic when, in the minds of a substantial majority of the public, the word denotes a broad genus or type of product and not a specific source or manufacturer. So, for example, the term thermos has become a generic term and is no longer entitled to trademark protection. Although it once denoted a specific manufacturer, the term now stands for the general type of product. Similarly, both aspirin and determinism philosophy cellophane have been held to Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning be generic. Determinism Philosophy? Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F.505 (S.D.N.Y.

1921). In deciding whether a term is generic, courts will often look to dictionary definitions, the use of the Neural Plasticity: The Growth of Learning, term in newspapers and magazines, and any evidence of attempts by the trademark owner to police its mark. If a party owns the rights to a particular trademark, that party can sue subsequent parties for trademark infringement. 15 U.S.C. ?? 1114, 1125. Bourne? The standard is likelihood of confusion. Neural The Growth? To be more specific, the lyrics, use of a trademark in connection with the The Growth of Learning Essay, sale of a good constitutes infringement if it is likely to cause consumer confusion as to the source of those goods or as to flowers for algernon the sponsorship or approval of such goods. Essay? In deciding whether consumers are likely to be confused, the courts will typically look to bourne a number of factors, including: (1) the strength of the mark; (2) the Neural Plasticity: of Learning, proximity of the goods; (3) the similarity of the marks; (4) evidence of actual confusion; (5) the similarity of marketing channels used; (6) the degree of gandhi movie review caution exercised by the typical purchaser; (7) the Plasticity: The Growth Essay, defendant's intent. What Happened? Polaroid Corp. v. Polarad Elect. Corp., 287 F.2d 492 (2d Cir.), cert. Neural The Growth? denied, 368 U.S. Movie Review? 820 (1961).

So, for example, the use of an identical mark on Plasticity: The Growth of Learning the same product would clearly constitute infringement. If I manufacture and sell computers using the mark Apple, my use of determinism philosophy that mark will likely cause confusion among consumers, since they may be misled into thinking that the computers are made by Apple Computer, Inc. Using a very similar mark on the same product may also give rise to Plasticity: Essay a claim of infringement, if the marks are close enough in sound, appearance, or meaning so as to cause confusion. So, for example, Applet computers may be off-limits; perhaps also Apricot. On the other end of the spectrum, using the same term on a completely unrelated product will not likely give rise to and Child Essay an infringement claim. Thus, Apple Computer and Apple Records can peacefully co-exist, since consumers are not likely to think that the computers are being made by the record company, or vice versa. Between the two ends of the spectrum lie many close cases, in which the Neural The Growth of Learning, courts will apply the factors listed above. So, for example, where the marks are similar and the products are also similar, it will be difficult to determine whether consumer confusion is likely. In one case, the quotes, owners of the mark Slickcraft used the Neural of Learning, mark in connection with the philosophy, sale of boats used for general family recreation.

They brought an infringement action against a company that used the Neural Plasticity:, mark Sleekcraft in connection with the sale of high-speed performance boats. Because the two types of boats served substantially different markets, the court concluded that the products were related but not identical. However, after examining many of the factors listed above, the court concluded that the what to the chilean miners, use of Sleekcraft was likely to Neural of Learning cause confusion among consumers. AMF Inc. v. Sleekcraft Boats, 599 F.2d 341 (9th Cir. 1979). In addition to bringing an action for infringement, owners of trademarks can also bring an cda jason bourne, action for trademark dilution under either federal or state law. Under federal law, a dilution claim can be brought only if the mark is famous. In deciding whether a mark is famous, the courts will look to the following factors: (1) the degree of inherent or acquired distinctiveness; (2) the duration and Neural Plasticity: of Learning extent of use; (3) the amount of philosophy advertising and publicity; (4) the geographic extent of the market; (5) the channels of trade; (6) the degree of Neural The Growth of Learning Essay recognition in trading areas; (7) any use of similar marks by third parties; (8) whether the mark is registered. 15 U.S.C. ? 1125(c). Kodak, Exxon, and Xerox are all examples of famous marks.

Under state law, a mark need not be famous in order to Sex Trafficking and Child Prostitution Essay give rise to a dilution claim. Neural? Instead, dilution is available if: (1) the mark has selling power or, in other words, a distinctive quality; and (2) the what happened, two marks are substantially similar. Neural Plasticity: The Growth Of Learning Essay? Mead Data Central, Inc. What Happened Chilean? v. Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc., 875 F.2d 1026 (2d Cir. 1989). Once the prerequisites for a dilution claim are satisfied, the Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, owner of a mark can bring an action against any use of that mark that dilutes the distinctive quality of that mark, either through blurring or tarnishment of gandhi movie that mark; unlike an infringement claim, likelihood of confusion is not necessary. Blurring occurs when the power of the mark is weakened through its identification with dissimilar goods.

For example, Kodak brand bicycles or Xerox brand cigarettes. Of Learning? Although neither example is likely to cause confusion among consumers, each dilutes the distinctive quality of the mark. What Happened Chilean Miners? Tarnishment occurs when the mark is cast in an unflattering light, typically through its association with inferior or unseemly products or services. So, for example, in The Growth a recent case, ToysRUs successfully brought a tarnishment claim against, a pornographic web-site. Toys R Us v. Akkaoui, 40 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1836 (N.D. Cal. Oct. Bourne? 29, 1996). Although likelihood of confusion and dilution are the two main trademark-related causes of Plasticity: The Growth action, there exist a number of additional state-law causes of action under state unfair competition law: passing off, contributory passing off, reverse passing off, and misappropriation. Passing off occurs when the defendant tries to pass off its product as the plaintiff's product.

So, for collapsed lyrics example, manufacturing computers and The Growth of Learning claiming that they are made by Apple Computer, Inc. Contributory passing off occurs when the defendant assists or induces another (typically a retailer) to pass of cda jason bourne its product as the plaintiff's product. So, for example, inducing a computer store to represent that the computers are made by Neural Plasticity: of Learning Apple, when in fact they are not. Reverse passing off occurs when the defendant tries to pass off the what happened to the chilean, plaintiff's product as its own. So, for example, taking a computer made by Apple, removing the label, and putting on a different label. Finally, misappropriation is a highly unstable, but potentially fruitful source of additional trademark-related claims. Defendants in a trademark infringement or dilution claim can assert basically two types of affirmative defense: fair use or parody. Fair use occurs when a descriptive mark is Plasticity: The Growth of Learning Essay, used in good faith for its primary, rather than secondary, meaning, and no consumer confusion is likely to result.

So, for example, a cereal manufacturer may be able to describe its cereal as consisting of all bran, without infringing upon Kelloggs' rights in the mark All Bran. Such a use is purely descriptive, and does not invoke the secondary meaning of the mark. Similarly, in one case, a court held that the defendant's use of fish fry to describe a batter coating for fish was fair use and did not infringe upon the plaintiff's mark Fish-Fri. Zatarain's, Inc. v. Oak Grove Smokehouse, Inc., 698 F.2d 786 (5th Cir. 1983). Such uses are privileged because they use the terms only in their purely descriptive sense. Some courts have recognized a somewhat different, but closely-related, fair-use defense, called nominative use. Nominative use occurs when use of a term is necessary for purposes of identifying another producer's product, not the user's own product.

For example, in a recent case, the newspaper USA Today ran a telephone poll, asking its readers to vote for their favorite member of the music group New Kids on the Block. The New Kids on the Block sued USA Today for trademark infringement. The court held that the use of the trademark New Kids on and Child the Block was a privileged nominative use because: (1) the group was not readily identifiable without using the mark; (2) USA Today used only so much of the mark as reasonably necessary to identify it; and (3) there was no suggestion of Plasticity: Essay endorsement or sponsorship by flowers for algernon quotes the group. The basic idea is that use of a trademark is sometimes necessary to identify and talk about Plasticity: Essay another party's products and services. When the above conditions are met, such a use will be privileged.

New Kids on the Block v. Collapsed? News America Publishing, Inc., 971 F.2d 302 (9th Cir. 1992). Finally, certain parodies of trademarks may be permissible if they are not too directly tied to Neural commercial use. The basic idea here is that artistic and editorial parodies of trademarks serve a valuable critical function, and that this critical function is entitled to gandhi movie some degree of First Amendment protection. The courts have adopted different ways of incorporating such First Amendment interests into the analysis. For example, some courts have applied the general likelihood of confusion analysis, using the First Amendment as a factor in Neural of Learning Essay the analysis. Other courts have expressly balanced First Amendment considerations against the degree of likely confusion.

Still other courts have held that the First Amendment effectively trumps trademark law, under certain circumstances. In general, however, the courts appear to be more sympathetic to the extent that parodies are less commercial, and less sympathetic to the extent that parodies involve commercial use of the mark.