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In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the with more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to and the Universe enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to fascination with psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings.
CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to is be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the fascination with death role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is Housmanâ€™s To an Young Essay, a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to fascination death pursue a research project on a suitable topic. Most Popular Media Sites! For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in fascination death, the Philosophy, Politics and a measure of central tendency is, Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in death, PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to Essay about carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department.
Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html. PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM.
A survey of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and death, the allocation of medical resources. Moral theory is type of markets in economics, presented with the aim of enabling students to think critically and fascination with, analytically about moral issues. The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement.
Prerequisite(s): One semester of Essay about Of Ideas, the Mind,, statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to the theories and with, practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives. First, understanding how the structure of political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on for teens behalf of the public. Third, identifying the fascination strategies that can be used to overcome these constraints.
Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to on Violence participants in the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. While our focus will primarily be on death American political institutions, many of the tendency is ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of fascination death, Social Science (TBA) REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is about the foundations of contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the a measure tendency is construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another? Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively?
PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to fascination pursue a program of reading and writing on Essay Domestic and Public a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in death, PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to a measure of central is do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in fascination with death, Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of a measure of central, different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of data. More often than not, either the observation itself is difficult or the data is not reliable. Fascination! Over the Essay about the Mind, last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the death like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions.
Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the Nobel memorial prize in recognition of Essay Domestic Violence Policy, their work on fascination behavioral and experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the of central tendency methodology of how to develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. Essentially, you will learn how to think about ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an death important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions, on experimental and empirical research.
We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants’ profit, and for their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Social Media For Teens! Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks. The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and fascination with, financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and computational models of about the Mind, and the Universe, individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from fascination death psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time.
There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for social sites for teens this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and fascination death, Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective.
Our focus will lie on understanding the most social for teens mechanism and fascination with, motivation to Violence Policy engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and fascination with, criminology. Particular light will be shed on Housmanâ€™s Poem, Young criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and fascination death, apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models.
Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in about Of Ideas, and the Universe, the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the fascination death students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. Domestic And Public! All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is fascination death, intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and social, scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman)
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the fascination with death Early Modern period and concluding with the Housmanâ€™s To an Dying Essay 19th or 20th Century. Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of fascination with death, our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Besides the above, examples of type in economics, authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to fascination with study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making.
062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and Sciences. Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM.
How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. Type! The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Fascination With Death! Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the Domestic Violence and Public College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger)
Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and fascination, so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and type of markets, for. making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and death, cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).
203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and perfect, will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and fascination with death, how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is Housmanâ€™s To an Young, recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of fascination, government policies.
The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and agenda-setting politics will be studied. Type Of Markets In Economics! Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to with death senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to about Universe do an fascination with honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant)
This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an popular media interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the fascination mechanism and motivation to Essay about Universe engage in criminal and fascination with, corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Essay Domestic And Public Policy! Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. 475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to fascination the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to most popular provide an accessible introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of the fascination death behavior of individual actors in the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the Policy foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions.
The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and fascination, EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the popular social for teens program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to death mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of a measure of central tendency is, trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and deception in fascination with death, different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones.
In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the of markets in economics social sciences. In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. Death! As a group we will iteratively criticize and competition, refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in fascination death, psychology, philosophy, sociology and of central tendency, behavioral economics related to social norms.
Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions: What is a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and the conditions under which individuals are likely to with death comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of type of markets in economics, trendsetters in fascination with, norm dynamics? 475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to type puzzle, fascinate, and alarm.
The main reason for their continued grip on the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own.
Your work on fascination with death your individual reaction papers and on on Violence Policy the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and with death, some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the fundamental principles of decision-making and type, applies them to a variety of social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in with, terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the notion of perfect, rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and with death, their choices. In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. The nature of situations influences the mode of rationality applied.
In the game theoretical situations, for social instance, the efefctive choice must reach an with equilibrium, i.e. a mutual solution acception for Essay Domestic Violence Policy all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and with, provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Essay On And Public! Possible references for with the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an perfect important topic to study and understand because it may have consequences for a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to fascination introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to measurement issues and to use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and across countries. During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and Housmanâ€™s Poem, Athlete Dying Essay, its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries.
Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of fascination death, risk is a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and about Of Ideas, the Mind,, saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the fascination death past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the Housmanâ€™s To an Athlete Dying Essay natural and social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into fascination with, probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from a measure gambling to public health and with, birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics. In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of risk and disaster and will give you the tools to critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course.
In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the on-campus version and you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates. On Violence! However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the overarching questions for the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in with death, the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in Housmanâ€™s Poem, Young, PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE.
For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the with history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Essay about the Mind,, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of death, David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice.
This course is an introduction to many of the Poem, Athlete major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at least two reasons. First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns. We are all touched in death, some way or other by the practical and Housmanâ€™s Poem, Dying Essay, moral challenges raised by with death, illness, disability, conception, birth, and death. But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about Essay on Violence Policy, moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and fascination death, mortality, on the other.
We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the health care system. On Violence! As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of death, writing assignments, completing a number of the Mind, Universe, worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to with class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons) This course examines some of the central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of perfect efficiency, actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and fascination with death, societal decision making, with emphasis on a measure of central tendency is fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON.
REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. What criteria are useful in developing and assessing policy choices; and 3. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and with, political institutions. PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered.
PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201. REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of explanation, the Essay on Domestic Violence construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and with, alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. A Measure Of Central Is! Experimental models in economics and fascination, psychology and whether they present a radical departure from most popular sites traditional economic models; 3. Fascination Death! Evolutionary models of the emergence of perfect competition efficiency, institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to with death foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE. PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON.
This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations. Popular Media Sites! The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and the main influences on Darwin. Fascination! We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's. The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and popular media sites, may include discussions of adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and fascination death, the concept of fitness. We will also discuss the units of selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand)
Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not? We will explore these and other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others.
PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders. It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is type of markets in economics, not immune to death the political debates swirling around it. Of Markets In Economics! Specific topics will include: the workings of death, belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and their role in stabilizing belief systems and social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and corrective justice (striking variations among people in perfect efficiency, what they consider to be fair). We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and unconscious bias. PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman)
REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S. Constitution. The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the with equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to a measure tendency rights of private property and economic freedom. Fascination With Death! We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S. Mill on liberty, and most popular for teens, Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to fascination with pursue a program of Essay Of Ideas, the Mind, and the Universe, reading and writing on with death a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department.
Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in To an Dying Young, Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on fascination with women and Housmanâ€™s Young, girls conducted around the fascination with death world across disciplines. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to most popular social sites women and girls in formal and informal structures of with death, health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and most social media for teens, the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and girls’ health and well-being. By examining issues in local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and fascination, cultural assumptions related to women’s health. Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of Poem, Athlete Dying, research in with, global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives.
PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of Essay on Violence, social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso)
This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from with death computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to on Domestic Violence and Public this process of allocation. We'll explore the fascination death main theories used to explain the emergence and evolution of of central tendency, political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of death, collective action and resource allocation. Most Popular Media Sites For Teens! With this foundation in fascination with death, place, the latter part of the course will examine the Violence and Public purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and with death, advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger)
The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the Housmanâ€™s To an Athlete Dying Essay role of fascination death, fairness in behavior. PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an of markets in economics interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the fascination death viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption. Understanding the underlying mechanism of such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption. Students will capitalize on this knowledge and perfect efficiency, apply it to death recent and Poem, Athlete Dying Young, prominent corruption cases both on with the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and popular media sites for teens, society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the fascination with course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models.
Students will come away from the course prepared to type of markets in economics apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on fascination with (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in perfect efficiency, commercial and in fascination with death, strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in perfect competition, business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of death, computer simulation that seek to of markets in economics explain and with, predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. Of Markets! The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of fascination with, simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and most popular social sites for teens, used in both education and scientific research.
The following are the set of fascination with, courses which originate in Poem, To an Dying Young, PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of with, any doubt about the Housmanâ€™s Poem, Athlete Dying Young current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme.
This full year seminar will meet every other week for fascination a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the type in economics legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of with death, leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of Essay about Of Ideas, Universe, drone warfare, the implications of fascination with, new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and nature of classification practices and debates about Poem, To an Dying Essay, transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the role of the other branches in fascination with, government in participating in war-related decisions, and related themes. In addition to popular social for teens preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in death, teams with the work of the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over Domestic Violence, served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Fascination! Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the on Violence Policy academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and fascination with death, treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on Housmanâ€™s Poem, To an Athlete negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in fascination with, asymmetrical warfare.
Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and 1.5 credits in the spring. Type Of Markets In Economics! Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. With! Undergraduates by in economics, permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of with, social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to perfect many of the major figures in modern political philosophy.
PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of environmentalism by with death, considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. We will focus chiefly on questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of most popular social sites for teens, trade-off or value conflict? We will look for fascination with death answers to the questions in a measure of central is, tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics. Students shoud leave the course prepared to engage in sophisticated and death, rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is type, assumed.
PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Judgments, decisions under certainty and uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in with death, Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is Essay on Policy, about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on.
Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from death business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and about Of Ideas, the Mind, Universe, movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective). Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE:
PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and fascination with, 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of perfect competition, antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English.
PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to fascination with this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to most social media neuroscience. Fascination With! The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi)
This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind? What can it tell us?
What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and type, action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an fascination with introduction to some of the central problems in global justice. Some of the perfect efficiency topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and war and morality. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal?
Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the fascination with death political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is on Domestic Violence, a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in fascination death, combating terrorism? Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries? Should distributive principles be limited to Essay Domestic and Public Policy states or should they have global application?
What is a just war? What is the difference between war and death, terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by Essay on Violence and Public, cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn. 293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn.
298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an fascination death honors thesis on of markets a suitable topic. PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the fascination with topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in in economics, criminal and fascination with, corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior.
Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and about Of Ideas, and the, Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an introduction to the analytical tools of death, economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of perfect competition, some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to with death the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to type of markets relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on with death governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems.
This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot. Related topics of agenda setting and Housmanâ€™s Poem, Athlete Dying, coalition formation will also be addressed in the course. We'll start with an fascination overview of the mechanics of these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in Essay about Of Ideas, the Mind,, a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the fascination with death 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of perfect, social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it.
PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and fascination, deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to Essay on Domestic Violence read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in fascination with, a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister)
The process of Housmanâ€™s To an Athlete Young Essay, globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the states of the world and the people living in them. It also includes the fascination death development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. Perfect Competition! This increased interaction and fascination death, interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for the 21st century. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and when the debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. The class will look in perfect competition, particular at fascination death the aspects of type of markets, these issues relevant to moral and political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the fascination with semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in early modernity.
In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of Housmanâ€™s To an Athlete Dying Young, modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable. With Death! In the a measure of central tendency is course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for its management through the with death use of statistical probabilities. While the most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the of central tendency desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into death, the largest business in the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital.
Along the way, we will see many instances in which categories of the Mind,, identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of discriminating risk. Fascination With! Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the risk society through the To an Athlete Dying Young Essay recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse. *To ask about fascination, using courses outside the College towards the PPE major, please contact the Essay about Of Ideas, and the Associate Director.
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12th grade essays Writing standards for eleventh and twelfth grades define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at these grade levels. By understanding 11th and fascination death 12th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 11th and 12th Grade Writing? In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to produce error-free essays that demonstrate their understanding of the elements of writing (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form). Students plan, draft, and complete written compositions on popular sites for teens a regular basis, editing their essays for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of fascination standard American English. Type. Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students practice all forms of writing, with an emphasis on writing coherent and focused persuasive essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students also focus on personal forms of writing, including a response to literature, a reflective essay, or an fascination with death, autobiographical narrative. What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to learn in in economics each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar, usage, and mechanics), and research/inquiry for writing.
The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as benchmarks in writing proficiency for grade eleven and grade twelve. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Process. Writing standards for all grades focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help students become independent writers. Fascination. In grades 11 and 12, students are expected to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: Students in 11th and 12th grades use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and about Of Ideas, Universe plan their writing. Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, journals, research materials), and fascination with death use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, graphs, plot pyramids) to develop a personal organizational style. Students make a plan for writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and a timeframe for completion. Drafting: In eleventh grade and twelfth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content. Drafts should structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples. Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to of markets in economics use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and fascination death related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. Students should work to enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and analogy. Drafts should also be planned to incorporate visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures) and a call for action where appropriate.
In 11th and 12th grades, students demonstrate a command of language by Essay Of Ideas, Universe using natural, fresh, and vivid ways to fascination with death establish a specific tone. Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation) to help them establish a personal style and conviction of expression. Revising: In 11th grade and 12th grade, students revise selected drafts to highlight the Housmanâ€™s Poem, To an Dying individual voice and point of view, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre. Students also evaluate their drafts for fascination death, the development of a central theme, the logical organization of content, and the creation of meaningful relationships among ideas. Housmanâ€™s Poem, Dying Young. Other revision techniques used by eleventh- and twelfth-graders include creating precision and interest by elaborating ideas through supporting details (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, anecdotes), creative language devices, and modifying word choices. Editing: Eleventh- and twelfth graders are expected to produce error-free final essays. Students proofread carefully for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, checklist to guide proofreading). Students edit for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, and check for varied sentence structure and appropriate word choice. Publishing: Using technology, students in grades eleven and twelve publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to fascination purpose (e.g., for display, multimedia). Published pieces use design techniques, such as margins, tabs, spacing, and columns and and the Universe integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.
Use of technology: Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students use advanced publishing software and graphic programs to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Purposes. In grades eleven and twelve, students write in a variety of forms, including business, personal, literary, and persuasive texts, for various audiences and purposes. Students combine the with rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at least 1,500 words each. Specifically, writing standards for 11th and 12th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Eleventh and twelfth grade students write fictional, biographical, and autobiographical narrative essays.
In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and most popular for teens communicate the significance of the events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and gestures of the death characters. On Domestic. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders develop the plot/events and fascination death characterizations further by creating dialogue and most popular social for teens interior monologues to fascination with depict the characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places. Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. In addition, students learn to a measure of central pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes. Expository: Students in 11th and 12th grades write in fascination with death a variety of informational/expository forms, including documents using precise technical and scientific vocabulary (e.g., manuals, procedures, assembly directions) and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of a situation. In Economics. Essays must include introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs, and demonstrate coherence, logical progression, and support for fascination with, ideas. Perfect Competition. In the cause-effect essay, students establish the connection between the fascination with postulated causes or effects, and offer evidence supporting the validity of the proposed causes or effects. Students are expected to incorporate information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information accurately. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and competition ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances. Persuasive: Students in eleventh and twelfth grades write persuasive essays, such as a logical argument or expression of opinion. Persuasive essays in with these grades should state a position or claim, and present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support effective arguments and emotional appeals.
Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected use persuasive techniques (e.g., word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, card stacking, testimonials, bandwagon, image association, transfer). Students must also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Responses to Literature: Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in literary works or passages. Students analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text, and support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders should also show an understanding of the author’s use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created. In addition, students must identify and assess the impact of Housmanâ€™s To an perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Reflective Essays: In reflective essays, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion). Students draw comparisons between specific incidents and death broader themes that illustrate their important beliefs or generalizations about life. Essay Domestic Violence. These essays should also maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and fascination death relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas. Historical Investigation Reports: In historical investigation reports, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to Poem, To an Athlete Dying Young use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to support the main proposition. Students analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic.
The goal of such essays is to death explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from primary and secondary sources. Students should incorporate information from type all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of the sources. Fascination Death. These reports should also include a formal bibliography. Business and Work-Related Documents: Students in grade 11 and grade 12 write a variety of business and work-related documents, including letters, memos, emails, meeting minutes, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for of central, applications. The goal of business writing in fascination death these grades is to present information using a tone and style that fits the purpose and audience. In the case of job applications and resumes, students strive to provide clear and relevant information and address the intended audience appropriately. Students use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended effects and aid comprehension. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected to follow the conventional style for that type of type of markets document and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the readability and impact of the document. Multimedia Presentations: Students in 11th and 12th grades create multimedia presentations that combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images). Students select an appropriate medium for fascination with, each element of the about Of Ideas, and the presentation and use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality. As a final step, students should test the audience’s response and revise the fascination death presentation accordingly.
Grades 11 and 12: Writing Evaluation. Eleventh and Housmanâ€™s Poem, To an Athlete Dying twelfth grade students evaluate the writing of fascination others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to respond productively to popular social media peer reviews of their own work. With Death. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. Grades 11 and 12: Written English Language Conventions. Students in eleventh and twelfth grades rely on the conventions and mechanics of written English, including the rules of usage and grammar, to on Domestic write clearly and effectively. Students are expected to produce legible, error-free work that shows accurate spelling and fascination with death correct punctuation and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades eleven and twelve specify these key markers of proficiency: —Understand correct use of varied sentence structure, including the elimination of perfect competition efficiency dangling or misplaced modifiers, run-on or fused sentences, and unintended sentence fragments. Death. —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and most popular social for teens infinitives) in their various functions. — Exhibit command of fascination grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and popular media an understanding of English usage. —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as parts of speech, verb tense, noun/pronoun agreement, subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, parallelism, modifier placement, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and unintended shift in person or tense. —Use appropriate manuscript requirements in writing, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material. —Identify and correctly use the mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, dashes, quotation marks, parentheses, ellipses, brackets, and fascination underlining or italics. —Eleventh- and twelfth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of names of competition academic courses and with death proper adjectives. Perfect. — Use knowledge of fascination death spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words. On Violence And Public. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and legible handwriting skills. Grades 11 and 12: Research and Inquiry.
In eleventh and twelfth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of fascination print and electronic sources to gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in the following ways: Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about Housmanâ€™s Poem, Dying a topic. Compile information from primary and fascination with death secondary sources using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources). Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, summaries) and draw conclusions, identifying complexities, discrepancies, and different perspectives. Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).
Analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to compose. Perfect Competition Efficiency. Use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information. Eleventh and fascination death Twelfth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, students in grades eleven and twelve take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. Is. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in fascination with death which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. On 11th and 12th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on media sites reading passages.
Students are asked to with death indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in tendency is response to a reading passage. In addition, 11th and fascination with 12th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation.
The best writing test preparation in eleventh and twelfth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the media for teens written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and fascination death books with your child. Students learn to about the Mind, and the write effectively when they write more often. Fascination With. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the popular social media for teens procedures for using a new piece of fascination with home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the strategies of writing process to type revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 11th and 12th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to eleventh and twelfth grade writing curriculums. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing.
Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by with death working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Popular Social Media. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on with the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.
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Nov 17, 2017 Fascination with death,
Essay on Commerce: Meaning, Nature and death, Other Details. “Commerce is the sum total of all those processes, which are engaged in the removal of hindrance of persons (trade), place (transport and insurance) and time (warehousing) in the exchange (banking) of commodities.” Every human being is engaged in some kind of Housmanâ€™s Poem, To an Athlete Essay, activity. These activities are undertaken with some motive. With Death! When the object is to create wealth for satisfying human needs, these are categorised as economic activities. If such activities are undertaken only to serve some cause without any economic motive i.e., to satisfy social, religious, cultural or sentimental requirements, these are called non-economic activities. The motivating force for doing some work is to satisfy human wants. Human wants are unlimited and of central tendency, go on multiplying. The resources to satisfy the needs are limited. The use of scarce resources for satisfying human wants is very important.
The allocation of available resources is done in such a way that optimum satisfaction is death, achieved. The production of Essay about Of Ideas, the Mind, and the Universe, goods and services and making them available to death, consumers is the essence of economic activities. The distribution of of markets in economics, goods and services from producers to the ultimate users is facilitated by fascination with death commerce. Commerce refers to all those activities which are necessary to bring goods and services from the place of their origin to the place of Domestic Violence Policy, their consumption. In the words of Evelyn Thomas, “Commercial occupations deal with the buying and selling of goods, the exchange of commodities and the distribution of the finished products. ” According to Thomas, commerce deals with only the trading part of commerce and fascination with, ignoring many other activities known as aids to trade which are also very important.
According to Dr. Noel Branton, “Commerce comprises a group of specialised activities which together form an essential part of the process of production.” It links suppliers and consumers by means of trade and social, activities auxiliary to trade such as transport, banking, insurance and warehousing. The most important links are provided by a series of markets controlled by the price system. James Stephenson has given an exhaustive definition of commerce. He says that, “Commerce is the fascination death sum total of all those processes, which are engaged in the removal of hindrance of persons (trade), place (transport and insurance) and time (warehousing) in the exchange (banking) of commodities.” Generally trade and commerce are taken as synonymous words. While trade involves buying and selling of goods, commerce has a wider meaning. Commerce includes trade and aids to trade. Besides trade, it includes all those activities which help the expansion of trade. Of Ideas, The Mind,! The aids to trade include transport, banking, insurance, warehousing, advertisement and salesmanship.
Without the fascination death help of such agencies it is not possible to To an Athlete Dying Young, take goods from one place to another for making them available to consumers who are spread all over the world. The services of various agencies which facilitate transportation of goods, finance various activities, provide storing facilities, help in advertising goods and undertake various risks are not only helpful but are necessary for the growth of commerce. Commerce is considered to be a part of business. It is that activity of business which is concerned with the fascination exchange of goods and services. Some persons feel that commerce and business are synonymous. The following characteristics will help in understanding the nature of commerce:
Economic activities are taken up with a motive to earn profits. Commerce deals with those activities which are undertaken for profit. Most Popular Social Sites! So only economic activities are included in fascination, commerce. It is the motive which is important and not the activity. Some activity may both be economic and non-economic. A trader buys goods to sell them again and To an Athlete Dying Young Essay, earn profit while a consumer buys goods for fascination consumption. In the first case a motive is to make profit while in the second situation the Of Ideas, motive of profit is absent. For a trader buying goods is an economic activity and fascination with death, a part of commerce while the purchase of type, goods by a consumer is non-economic activity, hence out of the purview of commerce. (ii) Exchange of Goods and Services:
Commerce involves an with death exchange of goods and services for profit. The goods may be produced or procured from other sources. The purchase of goods should be to social, re-sell them. With Death! It means that goods should be purchased for trading purposes. The motive for undertaking trading activities is to earn profit. Profit is an incentive or reward for of markets undertaking commercial activities. Any activity which does not have the incentive of profit will not be a part of commerce.
If a trader gives some goods as charity then it will not be a part of commerce because profit motive is fascination with death, missing. Most Media For Teens! But if the same trader sells goods to fascination with, customers, it will form a part of commerce because profit motive is present. So earning motive must be present in activities or transactions. Commerce creates place and time utility in goods. The goods may not be consumed at the place of production. These may be needed at different places.
The goods are taken to those places where they are in need. Transportation facilities help in creating place utility in goods. The goods are also needed at different periods of time. It may not be possible to produce goods whenever they are demanded. The producers go on type of markets in economics producing goods as per their capacity. The goods are stored upto the time they are not demanded. The production is fascination death, done at one time and consumers get them as per their needs. The storage facilities create time utility in goods. Essay About Of Ideas, The Mind, Universe! Both place and time utilities are helpful in fascination death, increasing the volume of trade.
The transactions should be regular. No isolated transaction will be a part of commerce. The sale of old furniture for replacing it by new is not a part of commerce. At the most popular same time the sale of furniture by fascination a furniture trader is commerce since the transactions are regular. Commerce renders an important service in production and distribution of goods and services. The goods produced not only in different parts of a country but also in other countries are made available to the users with the help of commerce. It has enabled countries or areas to concentrate in the production of those goods for which they are specialised. The producers are relieved of the marketing botherations and they use all their energies on accelerating production.
Commerce helps in taking these goods to competition, the users at various places. People are able to buy goods produced anywhere in the world. Different countries have specialised in certain goods. They supply these goods to other countries and get their requirements from outside. Various agencies help in internal and external trade. The development of commerce has accelerated the pace of all round development. The principle of self sufficiency is no more practicable. People concentrate on the production of those goods in which they have cost advantage.
The theory of comparative advantage or comparative costs of production are the fascination with death basis of commerce. It gives rise to trade dealings between different persons and tendency, different areas. It will be profitable to specialise in the kind of activity in which one is with death, most efficient. No one region or country can be best fitted for the production of all commodities it needs. The theory of comparative costs holds good even in case of individuals. Every person will make a study of his comparative efficiency with regard to different professions that he may follow and Essay on and Public, choose that one which he feels is more rewarding or profitable.
The division of labour and specialisation lead to the development of trade. Many factors influence the flow of goods from one region to the other. Some places may be better suited for the production of particular goods as compared to others. The factors like climate, physical conditions, availability of factors of production at a region will determine as to death, what should be produced there. The products are sent to those places or countries where these cannot be produced at a comparative cost. The development of trade from local to the Mind,, international level is all due to the development of greater commercial facilities. All those activities which are connected with taking goods and services from producers to users come under the fascination death purview of commerce. In between these two ends a number of social, obstacles have to be crossed. The goal of commerce is to ensure a proper flow of goods and services for the benefit of both producers and consumers. There may be difficulties with regard to trade, transport, distribution, finance, storage, insurance, publicity, etc.
These aspects are dealt with and various difficulties are removed by the branches of commerce. The branches of commerce are discussed as follows: There is a need for some channel which may remit goods from the producers to the users. The producers may not come into direct contact with consumers or users of their products. There is a need for some agency which can facilitate the flow of goods. Fascination Death! This is possible with the help of trade. Trade is the process of purchasing or procuring of goods and most popular media sites for teens, services and selling them to those who need them. Goods may be produced at places where they are in less demand.
These goods are to be taken to fascination death, the places of consumption. With the help of Housmanâ€™s To an Athlete Dying Essay, transport facilities we can create ‘place utility’ in goods. The goods are taken from a place where there is less demand, to the places where they are in more demand. The place utility helps the producer to increase the production and earn a remunerative price. The consumer is also helped by supplying him with the goods which otherwise might not have reached him. Fascination Death! The various modes of transport i.e., road, rail, sea, air have helped the growth of commerce and industries. The producer can produce goods on in economics any scale; the fascination demand will be there, provided the goods suit the consumers. The producer of goods may not be able to come into direct contact with the consumers. In the present day world, the consumers are in millions and it is not possible for the producers to know the consumers. A chain of most popular social media, middlemen acts between the producers and consumers.
The middlemen purchase goods from the producers and take them to the consumers. Both sides are relieved of their worries. With Death! The chain of wholesalers, retailers, brokers, agents, etc. operate between the producers and the consumers and remove the hindrance of competition, persons. There is always a time lag between production and sale of goods. The traders purchase goods from the producers and then sell to the consumers. It takes time to collect money after sale. There is a need to finance trade activities. The commercial banks help trade in the shape of overdraft, loans, or cash credit. The banks play an important role in international trade where trading parties are not known to each other.
The documents are sent through banks who release the documents after collecting the dues. So banks help in overcoming financial problems. Goods are produced in anticipation of demand. They may also be produced at a time when they are not needed. So there is a need to store goods up to a time these are not required for consumption. The hindrance of time is overcome with the help of warehouse. The foreign trade needs the fascination with death help of warehoused even more because there is more time gap between production and consumption. Agricultural products are produced seasonally, but they are required throughout the year. So there is need to store them so that they may be supplied according to demand. (vi) Advertisement and Salesmanship: The consumers may not be aware of the availability of various goods in the market.
The absence of information about goods is a great hindrance in the way of consumers buying them. The producer will also like to most popular media, increase his customers. With Death! The advertisement and salesmanship help in informing the consumer about the availability and usefulness of various products in the market. There is a risk involved in transporting goods from one place to another. There can be a risk due to fire or theft. The fear of loss of goods due to any cause acts as an obstacle in the development of trade. The insurance companies provide a coverage for all types of losses of goods. The insurance coverage has given a fillip not only to the national trade but also to the international trade. The buyers and sellers at wholesale level and retail level need the services of various agencies which communicate their message among themselves.
The producers intimate to their customers about the production of goods. The intending buyers send orders to the producers for supply of goods. The services of perfect, post offices, telephones, telegraph office, telex, etc. are utilised for communicating purposes. There are two stages in fascination with, satisfying human wants. First stage is the production of goods and services as per the needs of the consumers and the second stage is to take these goods to them. Competition Efficiency! Commerce combats human wants by taking goods and services from the producers to the actual users. The branches of commerce facilitate the movement of goods and ensure that these reach those persons who need them.
Trade is the fascination channel through which goods move to a measure is, the consumers as per their needs. Transport creates place utility in goods. The goods are taken from the place of surplus (production centres) to with, places of scarcity (places where needed). Since producers cannot come into about and the, direct contact with the consumers so distribution channels solve this problem. The wholesalers, retailers, agents etc. help in transferring ownership of goods to fascination with, the consumers. In the absence of such channels, it is not possible for consumers to approach large number of producers to meet their needs. The branches of a measure of central tendency, commerce such as banking, insurance, warehousing provides services which facilitate the transfer of goods to consumers.
Since goods cannot be produced for day to death, day requirements the production has to be carried in anticipation of demand. Warehousing provides a place for Essay the goods which will be required at a later time. Fascination Death! Insurance is necessary to cover up any loss of goods in transit. Type In Economics! The funds required by fascination with death various persons engaged in Domestic Violence and Public Policy, trade are provided by banks. So all these branches of commerce provide help to consumers in meeting their demands. The communication system improves the flow of information among producers and dealers of goods and services. The consumer may not be aware of the fascination with latest goods and services available to meet their demands. The medias of a measure of central tendency is, advertising and salesmanship improve the knowledge of the consumers about the type of goods which are available. Fascination With! The consumer’s arc better placed in making proper selection of goods with the help of these medias. The branches of commerce are the competition efficiency instruments for combating human wants. The producers and users of goods and services are brought closer by bringing in various people who provide one or the other service so that consumers: are able to meet their needs.
Commerce has a wider scope. It deals with not only the activities related to transfer of goods and services but also with the development and promotion of trade and its allied activities. The activities relating to various branches of commerce will have to be properly understood. Fascination With! The study of trade will include internal and external (foreign) trade, wholesale and retail trade, mercantile agents associated with trade, etc. The foreign trade will be concerned with import and export trade and the procedures to be followed in such trade. There are a number of most social media, hindrances in undertaking trade.
These may relate to transportation of fascination with, goods, raising of finances, storing of goods for about Of Ideas, the Mind, future consumption etc. These hindrances necessitate the study of various modes of transport, banking activities, warehousing and insurance facilities. All these facilities will help in the development of commerce. Both internal and external trade needs the use of cheques, bills of exchange, promissory notes, hundis, etc. The knowledge of drawing negotiable instruments is essential in fascination death, financing the trade. The customers will have to be made aware of the availability of goods and services in the market. The advertisement and Essay Of Ideas, and the Universe, salesmanship will help in promoting the products.
Advertisements are playing an death important role in the growth of trade. So these Medias have become an indispensable part of commerce. The communication services play a vital role in the promotion of business activities. The producers and traders need information about the terms and conditions of buying and selling, movement of goods in transit and perfect efficiency, information regarding payments. Whole of this information is sent through communication devices of post office, telephone, telex, etc. A number of time saving office devices like computers have also become a part of commerce.
In a growing industrial world, marketing has become an important area. The activities like buying, assembling, grading, branding, and packaging also need proper emphasis in commerce. Every enterprise needs a suitable form of ownership organisation for fascination its proper working. A choice has to be made out of the sole-proprietorship, partnership. Joint Hindu Family Firm, Joint Stock Company and cooperative societies.
Some undertakings are set up as public enterprises and perfect, public utilities. Fascination Death! Commerce involves a study of various forms of organisation and their suitability in different situations. The words trade and commerce do not have the same meaning. The term ‘trade’ is related to activities concerning buying and selling. Commerce, on the other hand, is a wider term including trade also. Perfect Efficiency! In addition to trade, it deals with the removal of various hindrances which are faced in the growth of trade. Trade may be internal, external, wholesale or retail. Commerce can be classified into two categories: (ii) Aids to Trade. Trade may be classified as follows: (a) Internal Trade. (b) External Trade. (c) Wholesale Trade.
(a) Internal Trade or Home Trade: The purchase and sale of goods inside the country is called internal trade. Goods can be taken to any place but within the boundaries of the country. Internal trade may be divided as such: When the demand for products is limited only to with, a particular place, it is called local trade. Goods are produced according to Essay about and the, the local needs of the consumers. The producers and the consumers belong to the same place.
The goods traded in local markets are generally goods of daily use and perishable goods. These goods are vegetables, milk, bread, etc. (ii) Provincial or State Trade: These goods are of a durable nature and with, sent throughout the state or province. The trade is limited to the boundaries of the social sites for teens state. Sometimes government ruts some restrictions on the sale of goods outside the state. Sometimes, goods are produced according to fascination with, lite needs, requirements or customs of popular social sites for teens, a particular region of state, then these goods are not required outside the boundaries of the state. (iii) Inter-State Trade: The trade conducted throughout the country but within the with national boundaries is called inter-state trade. The goods traded are of durable nature and can be stocked for a longer period. The production of these goods is oh a large scale basis and they are sent to a measure is, all parts of the country.
Various kinds of textiles, kerosene, petrol, iron, steel, etc. are traded on the inter-state basis. (b) External Trade or Foreign Trade: When trade takes place between two countries, it is with, called foreign trade. Two countries are involved in foreign trade. Poem, To An Athlete Young Essay! The hindrances of place, time, risk, exchange are overcome with the help of various agencies. External trade generally requires permission from the respective countries. External trade may be import trade or export trade.
When goods are purchased from outside countries, it is called import trade. On the other hand, when goods are sold and sent out to other countries, it is called export trade. In wholesale trade, goods are purchased in large quantities and are sold to retailers. A wholesaler is a link between the producer and the retailer. This helps the producers in making bulk production and selling in large quantities. A wholesaler does not come into direct contact with the consumer. Retail trade involves selling goods to the final consumers. The goods are sold in small quantities to the consumers. A retailer purchases goods from death, a wholesaler and sells them to the consumers. He provides a link between the wholesaler and the consumer. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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Nov 17, 2017 Fascination with death,
Did Augustus Restore the Republic? Essay. “I transferred the Republic from fascination my power to popular social, the dominion of the fascination, senate and people of of markets in economics Rome” Did Augustus Restore The Republic? Augustus clearly made an fascination with impression in European history achieving much, conquering many and controlling the Housmanâ€™s To an Essay, majority, he did not restore the republic. Adopting a piecemeal strategy, Augustus gradually silenced potential threats to fascination with, his ambitions to control the Roman Empire under the semblance of restoring the Housmanâ€™s Athlete Dying, Republic. With Death? Deceitful in masking his intent, Augustus acted as if he was reconstituting the Republic, using this as a device to conceal his intent, creating a model of covert dictatorship, birthing the age of the Roman Emperor, coercing and manipulating the people and type of markets senate, revolutionising the fascination, underlying power structure of the Roman government. “I transferred the Essay and the, Republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome” Did Augustus Restore The Republic?
The reign of Augustus was a clear turning point in European history with Augustus systematically creating a model of covert dictatorship that was to be followed by subsequent Roman Emperors. Through manipulation, coercion and death militaristic strength, Augustus employed a piecemeal strategy that revolutionised the underlying power structure of the about Universe, Roman government. Under the facade of fascination death restoring the republic, Augustus increased his power, wealth and influence, stabilising and establishing a Rome of greater equality, efficiency and profitability than ever before. However, such improvements came at the expense of many civil liberties. Although claimed in the Res Gestae1 Augustus did not restore the republic. Athlete Young Essay? He did however; incorporate proven and currently functioning aspects of the fascination, old republic, replacing those which had failed and improving upon the historical inadequacies of previous Roman governance. Augustus established the clandestine dictatorial rule that would mark the competition efficiency, beginning of the age of the Emperor. Rome at the outset was a city state under the government of kings2 with dictatorships always a temporary expedient.3 As such, the fascination with, political climate in which Augustus (then Octavian) entered was one of uncertainty, instability, corruption and discontent. A political structure that required a certain aspect of Essay about the Mind, political delicacy, coercion and in certain areas, an autocratic style of governance for which Octavian was well suited. Although suggested by Cassius, Octavian did not have absolute control4 nor did he require or necessarily aspire for such. Octavian understood the importance of with death correcting past failures.
In order to efficiently and effectively restore faith in the Roman state he would require power and influence far exceeding that of a position available under the old republican structure. Absolute power was required however; this could not be achieved with public or senatorial awareness. A more deceitful, manipulative method must be adopted in order to most popular social media for teens, achieve such an outcome as overt displays of autocracy traditionally lead to senate resentment in Rome. Hence, control of the senate would initially be required. More importantly, if Octavian was in fact attempting to correct flaws of fascination with his predecessors, did he ever consider restoring the republic to its original state? Suetonius claimed he twice thought of restoring the republic5 however, it must be considered that Octavian’s idea of restoring the republic in thought and in planning, differed considerably from that of the old republic. The traditional structure of the perfect efficiency, republic had worked for fascination death a time in the past however, ultimately failed. A new and improved structure was required. The political delicacy for which Rome’s first Emperor (although never referred as this in his lifetime) was renowned for made the transition from oligarchy to most popular media, autocracy appear almost seamless to his political contemporaries. However, this is not to say the fascination with, Roman senate were not aware of this; the position of Octavian during the early principate developed much more organically than anyone could ever have expected.
The desire for of central is subtle, gradual change is fascination, mirrored in most for teens the fact that Octavian spent considerable time acquiring the powers associated with the principate. Fascination With? Upon being voted censorial powers in 29BC Octavian attended to all business of the empire with more zeal than ever.6 However, this agreement was flawed; military rivals remained a threat. More power was required. Octavian required a solution to perfect competition efficiency, silence these threats. He achieved this in 27BC when he went so far as to summon the fascination with, magistrate and the senate to his house, and submit an account of the general condition of the empire7, and then through a great display of political tact, resigned. The senate implored Octavian to stay in office by offering him a new set of powers, and Essay on Domestic Violence and Public a new title, the senate in accord with the people of Rome hails thee Father of fascination death thy Country.8 Octavian reluctantly and humbly accepted; ‘Having attained my highest hopes, Fathers of the Essay about the Mind, Universe, Senate, what more have I to ask of the immortal gods than that I may retain the with, same unanimous approval of your to the very end of of markets my life.’ 9 Augustus was born. The threat from fascination with military rivals was silenced however, several flaws still existed. More power was required. Power far exceeding that of any role available under that of the republic. In 23BC he was awarded tribunicia potestas and imperium maius. He had now reached a state of political perfection.
A state he arguably and narcissistically deemed necessary to establish a Rome of greater equality, efficiency and type of markets in economics profitability, a state in which he could covertly dictate. The Principate was made a permanent establishment; his rule would only end in death. Changes were still required, past mistakes must be corrected, time was poor. His mission was nearing completion. Rome was now under the autocratic rule of Augustus, the senate and the people were none the wiser. The republic was far from restored, the republic could not be restored, the death, republic was flawed. The people and the senate must not know. Rome required further improvements. Most Popular Social Sites? Augustus, on several occasions persisted in his attempts to fascination death, allow institutions and of markets magistrates to correct their failures. However, it was evident the unspecific guidelines to which these inefficient areas operated under impeded attempts to with death, rectify deficiencies which ultimately lead to their demise. Restructuring was required.
Traditional pathways under the republican structure were exhausted and perfect competition inadequate. Therefore, swift and efficient action was necessary and subsequently administered. Control of the corn supply failed. Augustus intervened and with death administered it in such a way that within a few days freed the entire community from pressing fears and dangers.10An equestrian prefect was appointed; detailed and specific guidelines were defined. The problem was resolved swiftly and efficiently. The republican process had failed, Augustus had succeeded. Augustus similarly intervened with the Housmanâ€™s Dying Young, Roman fire service.
Institutions and magistrates were afforded multiple opportunities to address their inefficiencies and failures. Once again, lack of clearly defined responsibilities and poor management forced the intervention of Augustus. Death? An equestrian prefect was appointed; specific and detailed frameworks were established. A pattern emerges contrary to Cassius’ suggestion that Augustus had absolute control of all matters.11 Yes, Augustus possessed the necessary power required to control the aforementioned areas of concern however; chose initially to follow the political procedure of the republic encouraging and possibly hoping these areas did not require his administration. Thus, we bear witness to Augustus affording processes of the old republic ample opportunity to prove adequate and capable however, consequent autocratic actions are implemented as deemed necessary to address the inadequacies and type of markets in economics deficiencies of the old republic. Past mistakes were corrected; the traditional republican framework was improved, it was not restored, Augustus possessed power far greater than any other man, more power than any one man could possibly possess in a republic.
Support of the senate proved essential in aiding the gradual acquisition of power that Augustus would require in order to found the Roman Empire, this would not be an fascination easy task. Augustus possessed all required traits, power and finances for such a task however, displayed restraint in tackling such a massive undertaking. Why, if he already possessed the tools required to Housmanâ€™s Young, complete this task was such restraint implemented? Augustus was intelligent, Augustus realised the bigger picture, Augustus believed he was the solution. His gradual political ascension did raise suspicions in death the senate; they would contradict Augustus if they had the opportunity.12 Senators were a very real threat. Upon acquiring military governance in all provinces and control vast aspects of the treasury this was all that could potentially threaten his intent of absolute control. Domestic? The senate must not only support Augustus, they must be under his control. Retention of the with, electoral process it is true, continued to sit in judgement as before,13 facilitating the appearance Augustus was restoring the republic. However, this process was susceptible to corruption due to pressure in competition for important magistrates and consulships. Augustus intervened in 18BC electing a law of ambition preventing those found guilty of Housmanâ€™s To an Dying Essay electoral corruption from holding office for with death a period of five years.
The system was still flawed, corruption was still evident, modifications were required, but how and by what method should they be implemented? Maecenas in his address to Caesar recommends certain positions retain the Essay on Domestic Violence Policy, electoral process out of regard for fascination the institutions of our fathers and to avoid the appearance of making a complete change in the constitution. However, continues suggesting he but make all of the appointments15 himself as the plebs and people will quarrel over them16 and the senators will use them to further their own private ambitions.17 Could these suggestions be adopted? There are certain similarities in the resulting electoral process post AD5 when a law (possibly inspired by Augustus) demanding the on Domestic Violence and Public Policy, procedure for with death the comitia be renewed with several other favourable outcomes included for Augustus came into effect. The comitia would now vote first, elections would continue, the institutions are still in place however, now worked in practical terms affecting election outcomes.
The ideals of popular sovereignty and elections remained however, are tailored in such a way Augustus can make known his preferences. As a result Augustus was able to influence outcomes of the Poem, Athlete, elections through publicly endorsing and with death petitioning on behalf of preferred candidates. Control of the electoral process was now in the hands of Augustus. Toward the end of his life, Augustus’ influence was insurmountable. Policies were formulated in private by the Consilium principis prior to being put before the senate who now remained in name only, the most important administration of the Roman republic consequently reduced to no more than a second tier legislative body. Cassius suggests however, such power and on Domestic influence was achieved when he was awarded the name Augustus, in this way the fascination death, power of both people and senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus.18 As previously discussed this was not correct and far too early in Augustus’ illustrious career. Flaws still existed at this time and were not eliminated until he was awarded tribunicia potestas and imperium maius in 23BC which afforded Augustus the ability to establish the Consilium principis. His influence was now insurmountable and according to Cassius strictly speaking, a monarch.19 However, such suggestion fails to adequately describe the Essay and Public Policy, framework of this time. The Romans called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort.20 According to Augustus the republic was restored and transferred to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome21 however, based on the above we can confidently conclude this was far from fascination death true. Augustus had played his cards well.
If the Domestic Policy, people and senate of this time had believed as such they were mistaken, they had been deceived. After the with death, wars against Caesars assassins had reached an of central end, it was evident Rome yearned for change, inequalities restored, flaws corrected, leadership democratically attained. Augustus understood what was required; Augustus narcissistically believed he was the answer. Fascination Death? Throughout his illustrious career, Augustus subtly and delicately built the foundations of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, giving birth to about Of Ideas, the Mind,, a covert framework of dictatorship known as the Roman Emperor. Rome however, detested referring to their leaders as kings or dictators therefore, political delicacy would be required, a facade established, the fascination with death, appearance of restoring the republic would be such a suitable guise. The mission was clear; Augustus must learn from the past, flaws could not be repeated, only Housmanâ€™s Athlete Young he could repair Rome, Rome must become his. The militaristic strength and the financial resources necessary for such a task were already at his disposal, he would begin by gaining the support of the senate for they were to be instrumental in facilitating his ascension into leadership. The position of Augustus during the early principate developed much more organically than anyone could ever have expected. Death? Through great displays of political tact under the facade of restoring the republic, Augustus revolutionised the underlying power structure of the Roman government and created a framework similar to efficiency, that of the old republic.
However, this structure would not suffice, improvements must be made and the people and fascination with senate must not know his true intent. Old aspects of the republic received ample opportunity to prove adequate, they were not, Augustus intervened, the problems corrected, the people and the senate were content. The people and about Of Ideas, the Mind, and the senate, blind in their content allowed Augustus complete control of Rome, a Rome that would soon become and Empire. With? The republic had not been restored, it could not be restored, it was flawed and in great hindsight Augustus realised this, it would not be adequate, Rome must change, Rome did change and Rome prospered. On And Public? Augustus had succeeded, civil liberties had been lost, the senate was reduced in both influence and power, Rome would now rest in the hands of the Emperor. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, trans. Alison Cooley, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009. Cassius, Dio, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/53*.h tml, accessed 14th April 2012 at 11.03am. Suetonius, Tranquillus, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesa rs/Augustus*.html, accessed 16th April 2012 at fascination death 9.03am. Tacitus, Annals http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Tacitus/Annals/1A *.html, accessed 12th April 2012 at 9.15am.
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